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Claus Spreckels Building R«W Aw., Architects 

Office of San Francisco "Call," Corner Third and Market Streets 

Modern San Francisco 

A'v CI IAS. LOFLAXD, Western Press Association. 

AX I k AX'CISCO presents, today, in 
steel and stone, the most eloquent 
lesson taught by the experience of 
the age. Chapter by chapter, the 
course of its rehabilitation tells the 
story. It is alone in the swiftness of 
its growing grandeur, it its comprehensiveness of 
plan, in the newness of its revelations of brain and 
craftsmanship and in its startling views of the 
achievements of Mechanics and of the Building 
Arts. Within five years San Francisco will be the 
most perfect city in the world. The stupendous 

San Francisco. To them have been added originality 
of design and picturesqueness of feature to con- 
form to the topography of the city and to disclose 
its natural beauty. Durability to withstand the as- 
saults of usage and time, safety in periods of quake 
and fire, and grace of outline and tower character- 
ize these worthy examples of civic progressiveness. 
It has become the greatest sightseeing city on the 
American continent, unparalleled in the multifarious 
character of its buildings, in the stability of its for- 
tunes, in the cheerfulness of its boulevards anil in 
the life of its parks. To witness the splendor of its 
regeneration also comes the seasoned tourist, to 

1 ■ equipped with Otii I 

The New Palace Hotel, as it will be when completed. 

plans conceived for its improvement and ciubcllisli- 
iiicnl are now under way ami are rapidly approach- 
ing completion. The towering and majestic 
"line buildings and other structures which adorned 
ili.' city, prior to the lire, have been no1 only re- 
stored on original lines, but have been modernized 
and mure richly equipped. The massive appearam > 

of the city, in lis entirety, indicates the solid it) ol 

purpose and means which are joined in a forceful 
union to bring aboul these effective results. All 
srli. mis and types '>i architecture that have been 
utilized in the rebuilding and construction "i new 
and restored cities, are ami will be represented in 

observe and in wonder. From the capitals of 
Europe and money centers abroad have returned 
San Francisco's globe-trotters to apply to the work 
■ if reconstruction the results of travel ami the use 

ill" wealth, In many instances their real estate hold 

ings are among the mosl valuable in the cit) and 

Mil se have been further enhanced h\ the ere< tion "I 

statel) structures, The mi tropolitanism of such mi 
provements is in be seen in the rich charactei ol 
ih. embellishment of the prominent intersections of 
many of the city's thoroughfares. The increased 
rentals from these investments are enormous, ami 
are. perhaps, unequalled elsewhen 

with I '-"■ I ■'■ 

Kohl Building 
Corner California and Montgomery Streets 


Future San Francisco 

By JOHN P. YOl'XC, .Managing Fditor S. [-".Chronicle 

ASTERN critics nf San Francisco 
have dwelt somewhat facetiously on 
the claim made for the city that it 
had an "atmosphere" which made 
it peculiarly attractive to that large 
and growing class which thinks that 
the chief end of man is to enjoy life. 
Commenting on some of our recent civic troubles 
they have expressed the opinion that it has survived 
the fire. There is many a true word spoken in jest. 
The spirit of San Francisco was not subdued by the 
great conflagration. Its inhabitants are devoid of 

them, and gave such promise of obtaining more that 
it was becoming a powerful magnet which the 
pleasure-seeker found irresistible. 

Good observers note that there is not the slightest 
disposition to become more serious. Since the fire 
the number of places of amusement and their 
patronage have notably increased; there are as 
many restaurants as formerly, and while they are 
not all as finely housed, the quality of their cheer 
and the manner of dispensing it has not changed; 
our parks which for a brief period served as places 
of refuge are again being converted into breathing 

The Louderback Building. Corner Eddy and Leavenworth Streets 

superstition and are capable of measuring one class 
ni ills against another. Thej have done this and 
have reached the conclusion that in the long run 
there is less icas. in to anticipate or dread disaster 
mi this peninsula than in the regions afflicted by 
c\ cli mes, il< H ids and blizzards. 

It is the consciousness that we are as immune 
from harm and far more comfortable than must 
other peoples that gives /est to the work of restoring 
tlir city and incidentally of holding fast to those 
peculiarities which made il distinctive and pleasant 

lii live ill. Il is these peculiarities which create the 

atmosphere upon which Irwin and others love to 

dwell, and which have made it an \iiiriican Paris. It 
lacked in the past mam of the distinguishing features 
of its great French prototype, hut it had enough of 

spots and beauty places; and our streets are rapidly 
being lined with buildings the character of which 
gives promise of handsomer simps than those wiped 
mil by tin- flames. 

\\ e need no other evidence than the kaleidoscopic 
changes winch the energy of the rehabilitators is 
producing to convince the most skeptical thai San 
Francisco will make good her promise to restore 
herself in an incredibh brief space of tune. Rome 
was imi built in a day, nor can a burned citj be 
reconstructed in a like brief period, but wonderful 
things ma\ be accomplished b) eager workers ani 
mated b) the desire to make things resume then 
old shape, \nv one may satisfy himself on that 
point l>\ taking a sttrve) ol the modern Phoenix 
from any of the numerous hills that command the 

scene. The photograph taken a month ago is so 
changed today as hardly to seem the same; a month 
hence it will be unrecognizable. 

The spirit which produces this result has no in- 
termittent quality; it will not flag because it lias 
its origin in a pride which lias been begotten by 
satisfaction with surroundings and nurtured by 
prosperity. The natural advantages of situation 
have taken a fresh hold of the imagination of the 
business men of the community and the) appear to 
appreciate more keenly than ever before the possi- 
bility of making San Francisco one of the world's 
greatest ports, so that we are likely to have that 
combination which proves so powerful a [actor in 
the upbuilding of populous centers— the oppor- 
tunity to make money and the ability to enjoy life 
while making it. 

There will be nothing prosaic in the future career 

of San Francisco. Whether we desire it or not 
the rest of the world will insist on putting the spot- 
light upon us at recurring intervals to spy out "ttr 

delects. These will be easil) discovered, f'ir un- 
like other cities we make no attempt tn conceal 
them, nor to fool ourselves into believing that thej 
do not exist. \\'e shall continue OUr efforts to rid 
ourselves of our "old man of the sea." and will 
probably succeed iii doing so before some of our 
critics realize that we have monopoly of political 
"i- social evils. .Meanwhile our endeavors in this 

and ..tiler directions will be a constant s,,nrce of 
gratuitous advertisement which will direct constant 

attention t<> our forward movement ami ultimately 
result in crystallizing the ..pinion already formed 
that San Francisco is destined to greatness. 

II i»:. T. Lctuman, Oxentt 

Front Elevation 

6CA.IE i'- 1 TT 

Apartment House 
Buchanan, Near Jackson Street 

Constructed by P. L. Pettig- 

y )i 


^ LULL. 

•niiiillinUli T , 



nnnunuj n 

Equipped with Olii Elevators James Flood Building Albert Pisses. 

Corner Powell and Market Streets, Offices of S. P. R. R. Co. 

Equipped with Otis Elevators 

M. A. Gunst Building 
S. W. Corner Geary and Powell Streets 


San Francisco 

Just the Same, but Finer All the Time 

By HAMILTON WRIGHT. Western Press Association 

AN Francisco is today the most wonder- 
ful city on the face of the earth. 

History does not afford an instance 
of such sublime courage and energy 
as is daily visible in the reconstruction 
of the metropolis. Not even the citi- 
zens of proud Rome in the day of 
her young and rounded maturity, when as Goddess 
among the cities of men she looked from her seven 
hills upon the sparkling waters of the Mediterranean, 
could boast themselves as so marked by the fact of 
their citizenship. 

"I am a Roman citizen," never conveyed so much or 
stood for as much as "I am a citizen of San Francisco" 
stands for today. 

The daily rebuilding of San Francisco is an inspir- 
ing sight. It is one of the amazing facts of history. 
The money and labor and mechanical energy expended 
in San Francisco in a few months would, saving a few 
emperors' palaces, build twenty cities like Rome and 
infinitely finer. 

Flic great heart of San Francisco throbs high and 
strong and true with energy and patriotism and loyalty. 
The spirit in which the material construction of the city 
is being undertaken has never been exceeded, for no 
other city in the world has ever faced so stupendous a 
catastrophe or made of so mighty a disaster the 
stepping-stone to even mightier greatness. The spirit 
typifies those traits in which we are proud to recognize 
an American characteristic. Yet San Francisco has 
always grown through difficulties and adversities. 
The work that is being dune today is nut unlike, in 
that is calls for courage and resolution, the very work 
achieved by the American pioneers who builded the 
city. Across the vast plains they came trudging be- 
side their ox-carts in which perchance were their 
families and household goods, or else with pack on 
back they wandered alone to the Golconda city, and 
many left their bones by the wayside. So it was, 
loo, with those who came iii frail ships journey- 
ing thousands of miles through rough and unknown 
seas. Thus il was a race stronger and more coura- 
geous, for the inevitable "law" of the survival of the 
tiiiest has played its part and given to the citj men 
witli the hearts of giants. Even today those who come 

are the wealthier, or the more daring, or the more 
San Francisco has been and is the subject of much 

comment from those in far-off places, Writers with 

a "mission" have come and written, finding always 
what they came to find, but much more, for they have 

never failed to recognize the big San Francisco heart. 

Much injustice has been done to San Francisco by 
these writers. An instance: Only a few months ago 
a young man widely advertised as a journalist came 
out to write an article for a well-known magazine. 
He came with a "mission" and he wrote according to 
his "mission." The subject of his article was that the 
crisis through which the city had gone was a test of 
men. All well and good. It was. Hut he interpreted 
the facts so that he might read into his narrative — and 
thus give greater "human interest" — his own ideas 
regarding human character. Thus the gentleman 
stated that while during the period of distress each 
man was his fellow's brother when business was re- 
sumed — which, indeed, was in but a brief time — 
prices rose. This, too, was true, lint not through 
greed. It was due to economic causes. The lumber- 
men, for instance, raised the price of lumber because 
the railroads and trans] nutation companies, the mill 
men and the loggers had to be paid more. The 
mills were forced to run day and night, and that cost 
more. Vessels had to be chartered and taken from 
their accustomed routes and that cost more. Indeed, 
in every single line of activity the effort to supply 
San Francisco made high prices. Hut no one held back. 
San Francisco isn't stingy. Traced to its last analysis 
there were no "gougcrs," and the stupendous prices 
which have prevailed have absolutely been no bar 
to the rebuilding of the city. In fact high prices have 
helped San Francisco of the great heart and noble 
purpose. There is not a serious capitalist in San 

Francisco who has been deterred by expense. The 

working men of the city are investing their savings in 
the city's bonds and depositing il in the savings hanks 
whence it is turned over toward the reconstruction 
of the city. In fact the present prosperity ami the 
future which is absolutely assured would he impos 
sible were it not for the vast capital put into circula- 
tion. Wa) with these "human interest writers." these 

little boys who need a course in political economy, 

business, and common sense 1 1 ei them write and 

"muck-rake" as long as it pays them a living, hut do 
not pay serious attention to them. If \on want to 
know whal is being done watch the hank clearings. 

or consult I inns or Uradstreets. Better yet. come to 

San Francisco yourself and get a line on the mosl 

marvelous ruins thej will shortlj have completely 

In the spirit of Sau Francisco you "ill find the 

reason for its rapid and marvelous upbuilding upon a 
more lasting an. I nobler plan than those of the former 

city, It ma) prove peculiarly difficult for an Eastern 

man who has never visited San Francisco to under- 

stand this spirit. He may indeed conceive the state 
ment to be a liit of high-sounding enthusiasm \- 
a matter of fact the loyal spirit of San Francisco mi n 
is particularly, if not wholly, responsible for the pres- 
ent wonderful era. ( >f course it has a large foundation 

in commercial reasons, in that the people have g 1 

reason for their firm belief in the future commercial 
greatness of the city; the future commerce of tin- 
wonderful ocean stretching out before; the fertility 
and resources of the "hack country," a region that 
surpasses in wealth and size all the countries of 
Europe. Yet devotion to San Francisco is a phase of 
the character of its citizens, that is the most valuable 
asset of the city. "The Californian loves his country 
with a fierce devotion." says Dr. Jordan. 

Tile foundations of a city are laid in the hearts of 
its citizen^, for cities are essentially man-made histi- 

Six months after the disaster many conservative 

men stated their opinion that San Franci co 

would he rebuill in five years. Toda) it is generally 

believed that within two and one-half to three years 

I iom the present date, that is from within three and 

one-half to four years of the conflagration not only 
the hnsiness portion but the entire citj will he re- 
built on a finer and more permanent scale than ever 
before. Within two years of the date of the lire 
.Market street will he a better street than ever before 
with better buildings and almost as many of them. 

The class of buildings that is going up is rendering 
San Francisco the best and finest built city in the 

To those who fear that the "old San Francisco," 
with her cosmopolitan air, her quaint resort- and 



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Henry Gutzeit Building 
S. E. Corner Sixteenth and Guerrero Streets 

Arthur T. Ehrenpfort, Architect, 

tutions and as the people of the city are so, in the 
long run, will the city itself be. 

For this reason, we aver, the real foundation- of 
San Francisco have never been disturbed. There has 
always existed in the hearts of Sail Franciscans the 
conception of a superb and beautiful metropolis; there 
has always, since San Francisco grew to be a city, 
existed the energy to transform this conception into 
a practical reality, and when energy and ideals are 
combined, materials are not lacking. 

Alter the disaster many people thought San Fran- 
cisco would not be rebuilt for a generation, "and, 
then." they said, "what will it be? Just a city of 
shacks!" Others to be conservative said, "well, we'll 
give it fifteen years. In that time a good deal of the 
principal part of the city will be rebuilt and the 
business portion down on Market street will be recon- 

restaurants, her hits of Italy and China, her historic 

associations will disappear it may be said that they will 
not and are not disappearing, but will exist in a 
mole wholesome, more sanitary manner than before 
and besides will he finer, and possess a more char- 
acteristic and individualistic appearance than they ever 
did. Xew Chinatown will lie more interesting be- 
cause instead of being a mass ,,f deserted commercial 
buildings that have been occupied by the Chinese it 
will consist of splendid buildings that are being built 
by the Chinese themselves on modern American stand- 
ards of building and building materials and plumbing, 
but embodying Chinese conceptions of art and Chinese 
traditions. This is. of course, just one of the ways 
in which the old San Francisco will he preserved. For 
San Francisco will be just the same, but finer all the 

Wine Press Fountain 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco 

Palatial Hotel Fairmont, on Nob Hill— Front Elevation 

Reid Bros . Architect) 

Equipped with Otis El 

Hotel Fairmont — Rear Elevation 

Reid Bros., Architects 

§ 1 i 

'S09 #urrrff9rj?-mT:<:' r . — 

Bullock & Jones Building 
Corner Post and Kearny Streets 

To be Equipped with Alaska Commercial Building " M ° ri . Arckitects 

Corner California and Sansome Streets 

Our New Oriental City 


RTICLES appearing in the public 
prints, as well as the work now be- 
in^ 1 carried forward, would seem to 
indicate that "old Chinatown" is to 
be rebuilt. If this were true in 
the full sense of the word, we might 
still have an attractive Oriental 
quarter, as the old one contained many quaint and 
interesting buildings. However, if the whole is to 
be carried out along the lines of most of the archi- 
tectural aberrations now being erected in the 

However, entirely satisfactory results are not to 
be obtained by individual effort alone: the sheme to 
be perfect should be evolved by harmony of action 
among intending builders. Why should the owners 
of property, as well as probable lessees, not form 
a Chinatown Association and appoint one or two or 
three architects of repute to pass upon their plans, 
offer suggestions and exercise a general supervision 
over the whole work? The scheme is entirely 
feasible and money thus invested would surely re- 
turn a thousand-fold. Complaint has been made 

Style of Buildings Now Being Built in the New Chinatown 

quarter, the resull will be a Failure, both artistically 
and in a great measure financially. Even though 
the taste of our Mongolian citizens be not consulted, 
we still will have a large crop of Eastern visitors 
who should be attracted and interested. 

The success ni all oi "iir leading Caucasian mer- 
chants is due largely t" the fact thai their goods 
are displayed in proper environment. \\ b\ should 
this nol be true of our Chinese merchants? If the 
Oriental mind as well as the mind of the propertj 
owner who may be building for him could be made 
to grasp this point, no doubt vast improvement in 
the type of structures t" be erected would result. 

thai ii is well-nigh impossible n> design an appro 
priate building oi an i Iriental type and compbj with 
the present building ordinances. To disprove this 
the accompan) ing sketch is submitted. Ii is intended 
to show a treatment of a building on a corner as 
well a- one ni the middle ol the l>l"ck. 

Special features are made of the fire-escapes which 
are elongated into balconies of ornamental design. 
Deep reveals are shown on the windows into which 
quainl designs <>i screen- or grilles may be in- 
serted Curved cornices and tiled roofs are also 
special features I he tiles maj be ol copper which, 
properl) treated with acids, will give beautiful gi > en 

and brown effects. In more pretentious buildings, 
glazed tiling or terra-cotta may be used and with 
the addition of Chinese lanterns, whether of copper, 
brass or even of paper, an effective adaptation of 
Oriental design to modern conditions will he ob- 
tained. For the most part, the use of pressed brick 
is in be abandoned and the exterior of rough brick 
or concrete (of which the buildings may he con- 
structed I to be treated with stucco and staff. This 

treatment will enable the owners of the buildings 
at present creeled, to treat their buildings, with 
slight additional expense, in such a manner as to 
bring them into harmony with the whole scheme. 
Special attention should be given to the coloring, 
'['hose who have traveled in the Orient are much 

impressed with what may seem at first to them, 
the gaudy color scheme of the East. This is not 
a tine impression, for if studied, it will he found 
that the Orientals are master- of harmonious con- 
trasts and in the buildings of our new Chinatown, 
if the soft lavenders, green and ecrus be judici- 
ously applied with pigments and -tains, a beautiful 
and attractive effect will he produced. Special 
features should he made of the banners and signs 
which go a long wax toward producing desired 


San Francisco is to he a new and greater city and 
Chinatown is to he a part of it. Why not have it 
in keeping with the rest? If we must have an 
I Iriental quarter let it he Oriental. 

Equipped with Otij Elevato 

St. Francis Hotel, Facing Union Square 
Which will be Completely Restored within a Few Months 


Ferry Building, Foot of Mat kit Sin it 


SAV-COR- 3 »fr. MISSION 5T3---5F- 

1100 O'rARRCLL .5T--.SA.N ruwcnco- 


Gunst Building 
Third and Mission Streets, S. F. 

Art and Architecture in Concrete 


By CHAS. D. WATSt )X, Consulting Kngincer, the Roman Stone Company, San Francisco 

cal press 
when he 

III", necessity for further study and 
experiment to make concrete adapt- 
able for use in the higher grades of 
work where artistic effect is re- 
quired is beginning to be realized, 
and urgent demands for improve- 
ment are being made by the techni- 
As one editor says, he reveals no secret 
states that "a eood-Iooking concrete bridge 

Cement bk ick buildings. 

Manufactured stone. 

The views of those engaged in these three dif- 
ferent lines of work vary considerably, as regards 
the treatment of the material. The monolithic man 
insists that cement should not be used in imitation 
of stone. The manufacturer of cast stone insists 
that his product is as true a stone as any natural 
rock quarried, and therefore can not legitimately 

m m R Fax! 
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bvilOihg roa 

GCO.P TOY* 5is7tB&. 


Toy Building 
Powell and OFarrell Streets, S. F. 

i kitecls 

milding is an exception." It is just as important be treated in an) waj except as stone, while the 

that methods be devised for improving the appear- 
ance of concrete as it is to devise methods b) 
which we can eliminate defects in structural design 
and execution of work, a subject lunch discussed 
at the present t ime. 

ll is necessary, in reviewing the progress made, 
to discuss separately the three different class,- ol 
concrete work : 

Mi m ilithic ci met el e 

manufacturer of cement building blocks is divided 
between the two. depending upon the class oi work 

he is doing. \\ it hoi it doubt the views ol the mono 
lithic man and the manufactured -tone man are 

both right. The treatment of concrete depends 
largelj upon the kind of concrete. It has nol been 
long that architects and engineers recognized that 
there was more than our grade ol concrete. The 
mixture of cement with anj kind ol aggregate in 

certain proportions, with little reference to size 
and character, was apparently all that was expei ted 
With the introduction of concrete for super- 
structure work, the necessity of more scientific 
methods has been forced upon us. uith the result 
that we have practically reversed some of the origi- 
nal theories, such as the amount of moisture re- 
quired, and the necessity of more careful selection 
of aggregates. The most difficult problem that con- 
fronts those interested in the improvement oi the 
appearance of concrete is in monolithic construc- 
tion, such as bridges, retaining walls, and heavier 

ports quite successfully, a method of washing the 
concrete while green, in this way removing the 
cement anil sand and exposing the coarser aggregate 
of the concrete. Some notable work along these 

line- has been done by Mr. Henry II. Quimby, ami 

the Chicago Park Hoard, under the direction of 
Mr. White. 

I he principal difficulty in employing this method 
in actual practice is the necessity of removing the 
forms to enable the concrete to In- washed while 
it is still in a green, or comparatively soft condition. 
There is a large field for further experiment in this 

The New Orpheum 
O'Farrell. near Powell Street, S. F. 

Lansburgh 6 HUects 

classes ,,i masonry. Improvement in this class of 
work is necessarily of the greatest importance as 
the bulk of Ci n rete work is of this nature. < If the 
various methods applied to date, that of tooling, 
either by hand, or by pneumatic tools, seems to be 
the best. The older methods employed, such as 
plastering and washing, have, as a general rule. 
not proven very successful, at least in America, but 
it would appear that this condition is due more to 
lack of experience in application, than to the 

There has lately been introduced, and from re- 

branch of the work. The necessity for overcoming 
the dead and monotonous gray color of cement is 
what appears most important. The variety of re- 
sults to be obtained by the use of various colored 
aggregates offers a large field for experiment, but 
whatever the method, it is apparent that it must he 
based upon some plan to remove the coating of 
cement which surrounds the aggregate, and gives 
the mass of concrete its color, whether it is done 
by dressing or by washing. 

In the field of cement block construction, the 
progress during the past year has been most noted 

for the improvements which have been adopted in 
the designs of the face of the block. It would ap- 
pear that cement block manufacturers had originally 
in some way conceived the idea that the only suc- 
cessful way to make a block was to imitate the ruck. 
i ir quarry-faced natural stone. They seemed to 
have lost sight of the fact that structures built of 
rock-faced natural stone in which each stone was 
the same size and color throughout the building 
would be as equally inartistic as the rock-faced 
hollow-block. An artistic rock-faced natural stone 
building depends upon having the proper amount 
of irregularity in the size and bond of the stones. 
I dock manufacturers who still adhere to the rock- 
faced design seem to be appreciating this fact, 
and are adopting means by which they are able to 
vary the size of the block, and the results are 
showing a decided improvement in the appearance 
of the structures. It is a question whether, from an 
architectural standpoint, concrete blocks should be 
made of this pattern at all. It is impossible to imi- 
tate the quarried face of natural stone, and it is 
doubtful if any architect would allow such a finish 
in natural stone above the water-table if it were not 
for the fact of its economy. The smooth, or tooled 
finish, inasmuch as it is artificially produced in cut 
stone, is probably the best model for the cement 
block manufacturers. Of course, the block manu- 
facturer recognizes that in the rock-faced design the 
requirements and execution of the work, such as 
the keeping of straight arrises and uniform joints 
are not so important, but it is improvement in the 
grade of the work, and not means of hiding the 
defects that the architects are demanding. The 
greatest difficulty in cement block manufacture, as 
well as in monolithic concrete construction, is in 
overcoming the natural color of the cement. It 
seems that the mixture of various colored pigments 
has not thus far solved the difficulty. 

From present appearances it would appear that 
the solution of this vexatious problem in concrete 
construction is going to come from the use oi a 
manufactured stone for the facing of the structure 
in the higher grades of architectural work. Most 
writers, in discussing the means ol improving the 
architectural appearance of such structures, seem 
to forget that the first necessity in appearance is in 

having the ci mcrete of the proper density, and made 

from such an aggregate that the finish once given 
shall remain permanent. In monolithic construc- 
tion it is impracticable, if not impossible, to put in 
concrete for the surface which is ol the proper 

grade to allow of a satisfactorj finish. In cement 
building blocks, where the concrete is mixed com- 
paratively dry, M is beyond a doubt a physical im- 
possibility to make a concrete dense enough to 

resist the discoloration brought about b) absorp 

Willi Factor} made stone on a process which 
allows the use oi a proper amount of moisture, 
where the aggregate can be carefully selected and 

proportioned, where the casts can be seasoned and 
finished, and the whole work performed by scien- 
tific methods under systematic and expert super- 
vision, it is possible to make a concrete whose 
absorption is less than most of the common build- 
ing stone, ami whose texture is such that it can be 
finished in the many various ways in which natural 
stone is finished, giving without a doubt a material 
equal to a natural stone in appearance, much more 
durable, and considerably cheaper. ( If course, it 
must be recognized that a high grade of manu- 
factured stone of this nature is necessarily more 
expensive than monolithic concrete, or machine- 
made blocks, but with the labor-saving devices now 
being introduced for the manufacture, handling and 
finishing, there is every indication that in manu- 
factured stone lies the greatest hope of a solution. 
Attendant with the advance of concrete lor 
structural users are enormous possibilities for the 
use "I manufactured stone. Heretofore manufac- 
turers were compelled to make stone of the sizes 
of the natural stone of which their product took the 
[dace, but with reinforced concrete, the stone facing 
can be reduced to an exceptionally thin veneer, 

Schmitt Building, Southwest Corner Kearny and Bush Sts. 
Exclusive Mininp Men's Office Building 

Fireproof Throughout ' •• ' -'■ fl »''. '•• 

which in many cases can be used in place of forms. 
thus effecting a large saving in the cost of this 
class of structure, and settling all question of the 
external appearance of the Structure. 

Californians appreciate the erection of a cast stone 
factory to serve the San Francisco market. 

It will face the Rosenbaum Building at Front and 

California Streets, the Hunt, Mirk Building on Sec- 
ond Street, the ll)is on Bush Street, and many others. 
Stone has taken a prominent position in the 
field of building materials for its value has been 
proven. It will add dignity, beauty and permanency 
to the buildings Of the re-created City Of the < i olden 

i late. 


1 1 1 E 1 F F II i I |i 

iiiiitii *■■■ 



Equipped tvith Otis Eiet 

Crocker Building, Headquarters of the Crocker National Eank 
Corner Market, Post and Montgomery Streets 

The Banks of San Francisco Afford a 
Record of Supreme Human Endeavor 

N all the world there can lie no more 
marvelous record of supreme human 
endeavor than is today peculiarly 
afforded by the statements of San 
Francisco's banking" institutions. 
When one recalls the millions of 
property that were swept out of ex- 
istence in the conflagration of April 18, 1906, the 
fact that the banks of San Francisco are constantly 
exceeding in their clearings any of those in the 
periods of that decade of the then unparalleled era 
of prosperity that preceded the disaster, the stability 
of these institutions, the character of San Fran- 
cisco's financial and industrial population as well, 
indeed, as of the people as a whole, is at once ap- 
parent; although a g 1 part of San Francisco 

burned, there was not a bank failure in the State in 

In that decade the population of the city increased 
over 46 per cent; the bank clearings increased over 
160 per cent; real estate sales increased 360 per 
cent; savings bank deposits increased fio per cent, 
and building operations 260 per cent. 'This abso- 
lutely amazing growth was without parallel anions 
cities of comparable size in the world, and yet San 
Francisco is growing more rapidly than ever. A 
hundred million dollars a year is being expended in 
reconstruction. Hack of the city is a common- 
wealth with the resources of an empire. 

While the following few figures will be ancient 
history when printed, yet they serve to illustrate 
the point : 

Hank clearings. [905 . . . .$1 .834.5j9.788 
Bank clearings, 1906. . . . [,998,400,799 
Think of it! 

1 luring only three months and a half of thai year 
was the city in normal condition, and yet San 
Francisco's clearings for [906 exceeded those of 

( )f course', it is generally known that San h'ran- 
cisco is the financial center of the bar West. Her 

bank clearings are greater than the combined clear 
ings of all the cities of the I 'acific ( < >as1 w est ■ if and 
including Denver. San Francisco is useful to all the 
\\ est indeed, to all the world. 

As shown b\ the report of i he Stale Bank Com- 
missioners, the deposits in the incorporated banks 
of America, exclusive of private and national banks, 

Vpril 14. 1906 $434,971,354-79 

December 51, 1906 496,401,445.38 


April 14. 190'f $562,847,34] .69 

December 31, 1906 624,888,752.05 

I rain in assets in eight months S 1 1 -',04 1 ,410.36 

The increase in deposits and assets in a little more 
than eight months of $123,471,500.95. 

The great increase in the deposits of the banks of 
San Francisco in spite of the heavy withdrawals for 
the rebuilding of the city is notable. The people of 
the Pacific ("oast have come to regard the banks of 
San Francisco as the finest, soundest, anil salest 
banking institutions in the United States. There 
has been no debauch of our greatest financial institu- 
tions. Our banks have kept themselves through a 
period replete with spectacular natural manifesta- 
tions, amazing development, and startling municipal 
rc\ elatii ms, bi >th safe fn mi all assault withi ml 1 ir dis- 
integration from within. 

32 I" 23 


■ Hi 3 


Increase of deposits in eight months, $ 61,430,090.59 

Mutual Savings Bank Building 
The Five-Story Building Adjoining was the First Rein- 
forced Concrete Structure Finished Since the Hire 
Equipped with Otis / 


( lapital 

$13,21 » 1, 






Spi ikane 1 .75. 1,1 > k i 

I [elena 840,000 

I '.mil 800,000 

Sail Lake 1 it\ -o5".' 

I >en\ er 4.075.000 

Los Angeles 
I takland . . . 
Sacrament 1 
Portland . . . 


Tacoma . . . 


-'.-'< XJ.OOO 

I.I 10.074 
3.221 ,064 





To be Equipped with Otis Elevators 

Total $35,524,600 $21,638,146 

SAN FRANCISCO $40,233,562 $30,108,981 

The capital invested in the hanks of San Fran- 
cisco i- aboul equal to thai invested in ALL THE 

This does n< -t include three large branch banks 
in San I rancisci 1. 


( lapital and Surplus 
SAX FRANCISCO $70,342,543 

greater than 

Capital and Surplus 

Minneapolis $12,390,200 

St. Paul 7,432,970 

1 linalia 4,552,060 

Kansas Cit) 14.713.500 

New Orleans 23,275,047 $62,363,777 

greater than 

1 leveland $36,548,918 

Cincinnati 32,166,751 $68,715,669 

almost equal to 

Baltimore $52,425,492 

Washington 19,679,500 $72,104,992 

[905 [906 

SAX FR W'CISO >. $1.834.5411.00:) $ i.< (.18.400.000 


1 .1 '- Angeles 


Spokane - 


Tac. ima 

Salt Lake City. ... I 

First quarter, 1007 

SAX FRANCISCO $599,365,000 

I [elena 

1 .1 is Angeles 


Spokane [. 5O1 .470.000 

Seattle I 


Salt Lake City. ... I 

*Clearing House closed from April 18 to May 23, 

590,1 44.OOO 

2.1 1 1 1.3 1 1.0 «) 


The marked increase of business in San Francisco, 
and the permanent character of the increase, are 
shown by comparison of the clearings for the first 
quarter of [906 and 1907. 



January $185,519,000 

February 156,272,000 

March 199/166,000 





Total $541,457,000 $599,365,000 

Gain in first quarter of 1907, $57,908,000. 

The gain would be considerably greater than ap- 
pears, except for the fact that the Oakland banks, 
which formerly cleared through the San Francisco 
Clearing House, organized a clearing house associa- 
tion of their own in the summer of 1906. 

San Francisco money in San Francisco banks is 
rebuilding the city of San Francisco. At this writ- 
ing a million dollars a week is being expended for 
wages in San Francisco, a considerable proportion 
of which goes into the banks as savings and helps 
swell the additional million a week that is being 
spent for materials. When San Francisco is com- 
pletely rebuilt an even greater amount of money 
will be in general circulation. 

The banks of San Francisco have passed un- 
scathed through the most trying crisis of the kind 
that has ever affected financial institutions. Some 
of them have had strange experiences. When the 
great fire came there was in the vaults of one bank 
more than ten million dollars in cash, fifteen millions 

in Government bonds, ten millions in miscellaneous 
bonds, and thirty millions in notes and mortgages, 
besides tlie books and documents relating to vast 
transactions. When the vaults had cooled suffici- 
ently to make it safe to open them it was found that 
not even a sheet of paper had been scorched, and 
the bank opened in its temporary location just a 
little mure than one month after the conflagration. 

As benefiting the mass of people the savings 
banks are deserving of special attention. The small 
people who cannot afford to buy bunds and stocks 
are getting as good returns from the savings banks 
as the big investor can get from gilt-edged bonds. 
This is as it should be. The laws that guard the 
savings of the people are safeguards to the depositor 
and encourage him to deposit his savings in credit- 
able institutions rather than invest in wildcat, or, at 
the least, not absolutely certain schemes where the 
record of failure is greatly in preponderance over 
that of success. All legitimate inducements are 
given tu the savings banks to encourage deposits 
by whatever legitimate means they can employ. 

It would, however, do San Francisco a great in- 
justice to segregate any special class of banks as 
more deserving than others, or as having inure con- 
tributed to the upbuilding of the Pacific Coast 
metropolis. Each class of bank performs not only 
the functions of its class but the usefulness of all 
is performed through many varied channels. As a 
whole the banks of San Francisco are intimately 
associated with the development of the Pacific 
Coast. Among their directorates and officers they 
include names lung and honorably known in the 
financial world, and intimately associated with the 
early histon of San Francisco. 

Hibernia Bank 
Corner Market, McAllister and Jones Streets 

^ *T $0 3* • 

^-* «B *^ 

-*•* ' L,- «* *• 

«« ~* t- -- *■ 

~« «*? *H ^ 23 

^ » * •*• ■■ ■ 

fa v; .- ■« •■ 

: %t 

. -*T 


m - 

~" ' *» 1'' N ^ 


— «'*- 
■ ■ 

First National Bank Building &■ "• Burnham Co., Architects, S. F. 

To be Erected on the Old Masonic Site 
Corner Post and Montgomery Sts. 

How the Insurance Companies Have 
Helped San Francisco 

HE mighty conflagration in San Fran- 
cisco that followed the earthquake on 
that memorable eighteenth of April 
created the most difficult situation in 
the history of Fire Insurance. It 
was but natural that in the period of 
unparalleled perplexities that came 
fast upon the heels of the flames there should have 
arisen much speculation as to what action would be 
taken by the Insurance Companies; it was also to be 
expected that in conditions so confused that the Insur- 
ance Companies sin mid be fiercely attacked almost be- 
fore they had been enabled to take careful note of the 
predicament in which they found themselves 
through a great natural catastrophe. 

Vet when one looks back and recalls what the 
Companies were expected to do — at least recalls the 
various demands upon them — ami further dwells 
upon what the Companies said they would do, and 
what they have actually done, he is amazed to 
find that not only have practically all the Companies 
lived up to their promises but in most cases they 
have indeed performed far more than one would 
have believed at the time of the fire to be in the 
bounds of physical possibility. They have, in fact, 
in many eases done fare more than they then felt 
able to promise could be done, or that any one in- 
deed tin night ci hi b 1 be di me. 

Consider the situation in which the Companies 
found themselves! Not only was the conflagration 
the greatest there had ever been, but it was not ill 
the nature of an ordinary conflagration for it bad 
been preceded b\ an earthquake for whose direct 
results the lire Insurance Companies were not 
liable, and yet these results had been largely oblit- 
erated by the lire; moreover, there was a great de- 
struction not only of insurance policies but oi all 
records i >f the < 'i impanies. 

fmmediately after the disaster great excitement 
was occasioned by numerous reports of varying 
authenticity or of no authenticity at all, regarding 
the manner in which the various losses would be 
settled, but as time has passed on, it has been found 
that the Insurance Companies have actually done 
far more than either financial experts who were ac- 
quainted with the situation thought they could do. 
or than those wlm profess to know human nature 

had considered that it were within the limits oi 
probability that they could do. In many eases the 
stockholders oi Insurance Companies were most 
heavily assessed, but they bore 1 1 1 >• burden cheei 

fully and in some eases sacrificed their personal for- 
tunes in order thai the insured should not suffer. 

I lad the payment of losses been conducted mi cold 
business principles regardless of the humanitarian 
duties of life it is certain that San Francisco would 
not be as rapidly rebuilt as is now being done. Hut 
there was and is a human element throughout the 
reconstruction of San Francisco, and although, of 
course, it has been "good business" for the Insur- 
ance Company to meet as far as they have been able 
the exacting demands placed upon them — for 
nothing more creditable can be said of an Insurance 
Company than that it has discharged its obligations 
in San Francisco in an honest and conscientious 

It is estimated that the losses in the tire to the 
Insurance Companies will sweep out all the pre- 

Mumboldt Savings Bank 
Market Street, between Third and Fourth Streets, S. F 

nilum profits for the last fifty years. Taken all in 
all, unquestionably the Insurance Companies have 
played a great part in the reconstruction of San 
Francisco. An immense sum of money has been 
paid into San Francisco, a far larger sum than Com- 
panies have ever before been called upon to pay at 
one time. In spite of the earthquake, in spite of the 
neanu-ss in lime of the Baltimore and Toronto con- 
flagrations, the Companies will have finally paid 
between eighty and ninety per cent of the amount 
of insurance involved and will come much nearer 
the latter than the former figure. Then it must he 
taken into consideration that there were several 
foreign companies that withdrew from the State and 
so pulled down the amazing record of the other 

to time, the period in which proofs or claims of loss 
might be filed, and, too. one is impressed by the 
fact that the Companies were most liberal in their 
treatment of the very poor property owner--. I laims 
up to five hundred dollars were usually paid in full, 
and the settlements were made with great rapidity. 
A widow with her young bab) went to the office of 
i me i if the great ( '• impanies : tin lusands of claimants 

were crowded around; it seemed that this poor 
woman could not receive attention among so man) 
strong men crowding ahead of her. But an agent 
ill tin Company spied her out ; he sent a messenger 
who quietly secured her address ami her claim was 
paid that evening in full at the house where she 
was then stopping. 

Third Street, between Stevenson and Mission 

■ j Xrchiitelt 

companies, of which there were more than one hun- 

The great Chicago fire precipitated by Mrs. 
O'Reilly's cow having inadvertantly kicked over a 
lantern, is the only fire that from the point of view 
of loss can be compared in any way to the San 
Francisco conflagration. Yet in the Chicago tire, 
which was tiny compared to the mighty destruction 
in San Francisco, the Insurance Companies paid 
only fifty per cent of the amount of insurance. At 
Baltimore the Companies paid about ninety per 
cent, or scarcely more than was paid in San Fran- 
cisco. The people of San Francisco owe a peculiar 
debt of gratitude to the companies which made a 
fight for the adjustment of claims on their merits 
and for payment of claims in full. 

\ feature of the Insurance situation for a long 
time following the fire was the liberal manner in 
which the Insurance Companies extended from time 

The amount of insurance covering property in the 
burned district of San Francisco has been estimated 
at $2 155.000.000. The value of property destroyed is 
estimated at a minimum of $350,000,000. basing an 
estimate upon the insurance liability, the known 
general ratio of insurance to value I about seventy 
per cent 1 and a guess that there was about five per 
cent of property that carried no insurance. 

The fire is becoming a memory of the past ; in 
a few years the traces ,,f its ravages will have en- 
tirely disappeared: to the making of the new San 
Francisco is to be attributed a great meed of praise 
to the Insurance Companies. Though some of them 
were so hard hit as to be unable at first to con- 
template paying their claims in full, or even a large 
proportion of their claims, yet eventually they did 
all and more than anyone had expected : and most 
of them, though being least willing to promise, 

came up to the standard when it came to the ques- of the Insurance Companies as a whole has been 

tion of performance. Upon the substantial com- marvelously creditable. San Francisco appreciates 

panies who from the first promised payment in full, the part that they have taken in her reconstruction, 

and did so pay, favorable comment is unnecessary; and San Franciscans are building more substantial 

they are achieving their reward. and less meretricious edifices than those that pre- 

ln conclusion, upon looking backward, the action vailed before the conflagration. 

. Indreu B. 1/, i reery, l )wnei 

Western Union Building 
S. E. Corner Pine and Montgomery Streets 


Residence District — Jackson and Octavia Streets 

Mission Dolores, San Francisco 

Museum, Golden Gate Park 

Wi Dougali Bi os.. . In hitects 

Conservatory, Golden Gate Park 

Claus Spreckels Residence, on Van Ness Avenue 

Band Stand, Golden Gate Park 
Donated to the City by Claus Spreckels 

San Francisco 



ost Healthful City in the 

By DR. AIM )I. I'll R( (SENTHAL 


HEN in the days of the gold excite- 
ment, the pioneers of California 

wended their wear) way across the 
plains to the newly discovered El- 
cliirado, little did they realize that in 
years hence, even after the gold sup- 
ply might become exhausted, there 
should remain such manifold gifts of nature to lure 
thousands to this glorious State of ours. The sold 
excitement is over but there remains a climate than 

cisco is the mart of ships from every port, it is 
signally free from epidemics being fanned by the 
purifying sea breezes. The good sanitary condi- 
tions, the elevation of the residence portions of our 
city, its facilities for salt-water bathing in the pure 
and bracing waters of the Pacific, and the fact thai 
San Francisco is the natural center of a vast and 
easily accessible territory which presents all the 
varying conditions of climate, ol almo.spln.-ric pres- 
sure anil natural springs will make it more and more 

Sutro Heights in Midwinter 

which there is none more healthful in this world. the Mecca of those seeking health and boclilj well- 
Here generous .Mother Earth sends forth innumer- being. Every requisite is found in San Francisco 

able springs, thermal and mineral, which lor genera- for the enjoyment of out door life. That the m.s-is 

lions yet unborn will yield up their health-inducing 
c|iialitics for the benefit of mankind. San Francisco 
through its geographical location and its topograph 
ical advantages is the mOSl healthful city in the 

world. Built on rolling hills, its residential portion 

is between two and three hundred feel above the sea 
level, the business section on the lower levels facing 

the magnificent bay and harbor. Though San Fran- 

are not indifferent to this opportunity is shown by 

the thousands carried b\ our Street car lines ever} 

Sunday and holiday to the Golden Gate Park and 
i he beat 1 1 at i he Cliff I louse. I >ur park is undoubl 

edl) one of the finest in an\ cit) In America and foi matter in an) city abroad. Horseback riding, 
driving, athletic spoils of all kinds can be indulged 
here to their fullest extent \t the Cliff House surf 

bathing is one of the attractions. To those more 
timid opportunity is given for aquatic exercises in a 
spacious building containing large well-lighted tanks 
tilled with salt water directly pumped from the 
ocean. For those who are fond of pedestrian exer- 
cise, a splendid territory of rolling hills and enchant- 
ing valleys unfolds itself towards Marin County, a 
short hour from San Francisco by ferry and prompt 
train service, where is also located our far-famed 
Mount Tamalpais, from whose top an unsurpassed 

and most extensive panoramic view of land and 

water can be had. 

.Many people for years past have come Wes1 to 
spend the winter in San Francisco and its environs, 
but many, many more will come when the health- 
fulness of our climate and the- advantage derived 
from the location of our city become more widely 
known, and 1 doubt not that in the not remote future 
San Francisco will stand forth, if not as the largest, 
at 'east as the second largest city in the Union. 

Blumenberg Building 
Pine, between Sansome and Battery Streets 

Entrance Gate of Presidio Terrace 

Looking East from Alta Plaza 



■■■T r-c-ftQ ftTOtKnJH »T 

Sanford Sachs Building £<»u 

Geary Street, near Stockton Street 

Newspapers and Railroads 

By E. !•'.. CALVIN, General Manager Southern Pacific Railroad 

HERE is not much harmony in the 
present relations between these two 
very necessary evils. A modern 
debating society could find ample 
material in support of argument on 
both sides of the question. 

To any one who has watched the 
development of newspapers and railroads some 
causes of Friction are apparent which could have 
been avoided, the prime cause probably being the 
tendency of railroads to conceal their reason-, for 
adopting policies or practices which are not under- 

regardless of its effect upon competitors or the 
public. Much effort has been put forth in some 
cases to elect officers of a municipality who have 
power to give franchise privileges, not for the rea- 
son that any protection is needed For existing rights 
by the corporation seeking control, but simply to 
be in a position to dictate what others shall have. 
Some railroads entering a new community work up 
sympathy lor themselves and secure a reputation of 
injured innocence by representing to the public 
through the press that they are being persecuted 
and unjustly opposed. 

United States Mint, Fifth and Mission Streets 

stood and consequently not well received by the 

Some railroads cut rale--, give rebates, and do 
anything else thai occurs to them in order to secure 
business from a competitor. The) Furnish pre- 
ferred service to old communities and build lines to 
develop new territory occasionally to further selfish 
interests. When there is a shortage of transpor- 
tation Facilities those available are sometimes given 
to favored shippers, or to localities where com- 
petition is keenest, Influence is sometimes used to 
obtain legislation favorable to a particular railroad, 

li newspapers knew how seldom such practices 
a- those enumerated above are now indulged in. 
however, the) would confine themselves to the 

offenders and not continue to educate the public 

to the belief that all the railroads of the countr) 
are using -iicli methods. 

In 1 1 1 < |io -nit strenuous times, when a news- 
paper gets a stor) detrimental to a railroad 01 to 
an) railroad officer, aftei commenting upon the case 
in point ii usttall) launches forth in a tirade against 
the entire class, wilhoul thought of the harm done 
in the wa\ of creatine dissatisfaction in the con 

infinities served by railroads, to say nothing of 
the feeling of discontent aroused in the minds of 
the employees of such corporation and the endless 
trouble resulting therefrom. 

i )ne or two prominent citizens in almost any com- 
munity can start a movement against a railroad, 
which movement may be entirely selfish and un- 

just, yet it will be supported by ever} newspapei 
in thai locality. Usually very feu people know 
whether such support is warranted, or even 

Newspapers and railroads have very much to 
do with the prosperity of the Nation, and if rail- 
road 1 1 i'ii u - re more open and newspaper men mori 
careful, the country would be better off 

iMxsmmtis ms&ssxim j 

ijJ^Uljluflrtffl ^ l AntnJL E 

Koshland Building Latisburgh 6 Joseph, Architect! 

Modern Furnishings for San Francisco's 

New Buildings 

and unique. 

HEN the building" of San Francisco is 
thoroughly completed, which will be 
within five years, the city will in 
physical respects be the newest great 
city of the world. From an archi- 
tectural point of view the appearance 
of the city will be most refreshing 
Imagine the splendid new steel and re- 

inforced concrete buildings — monoliths, almost 


tallest buildings withstood the earthquake better than 
the less imposing structures, and despite the fact that 
thirty-seven of the very tallest or the very best build- 
ing, the "I lass A" structures, were left bv the tire. 
Now substantial and imposing office buildings are be- 
ing erected. 

One of the thoroughly modern features to be noticed 
in the new buildings is their equipment with ( His ele- 
vators, by all odds the finest and latest type of elevator 

Otis Elevators in Flood Building — Finest in the City 

carved out of the solid granite, for the concrete be- 
comes harder than granite and is all of one piece. 

Never will the architect have so unique an oppor- 
tunity to display his talent. San Francisco will stand 
alone as the highest, and particularly the most recent 
achievement oi the designer, the builder, the plumber, 
the painter, the carpenter, the cabinet maker, ll" 
furnisher and the elevator manufacturer. The manu 
facturer whose product is the most pleasing, the most 

modern, and the most substantial, has in San bran- 
cisco the greatest market for his wares. 

Shortly after tin memorable conflagration maty 
people thought it would prove impracticable to erect 

tall buildings in San Francisco, although man) ol the 

known. The 'His elevator has a wide reputation not 

only on the Pacific toast but throughout the English- 
speaking world, 'hie of the first of the great build- 
ings to he rehabilitated, the Flood building, is 
equipped with i nis elevators; and the appearance of 
the i 'tis elevator and the excellent service we have 
found to be a matter of comment from all ol those 

persons we have talked with who have entered the 


I In Otis Elevatoi C pany, of course, builds a 

great variety ol elevatoi both passenger ami freight, 

including automatic elevators for a class of buildings 

or of private residences where the travel is not great 
ami the passengei may himself run ih. i li i itOI I'he 

( Mi- elevators an- manufactured by skilled mechanics 
of long experience in their craft. Indeed, the com- 
pany employs none other than skilled operative-. In 
the building of these elevators it would seem that 
almost every resource of mechanical ingenuity and 
almost every phase of that particular departmenl of 
engineering knowledge required has been called forth. 
Years of experience, the highest industrial equipment, 
and the expenditure of much capital has brought the 
< Mi- elevator to the highest point of efficiency, beauty, 
and durability. < Inly the strongest material- are em- 
ployed in the construction of the < Mi- elevators, a fact 
which i- attested by the manner in which a great num- 
ber of these elevator- uitli-t I the lire and earth 

quake. The elevators are made to be operated by a 
variety of motive power including hydraulic, electric, 
-team, belt and hand power. 

The progress oi elevator building lias reached a 
point where the danger of accidents is absolutely elimi- 
nated. All the safety devices of the railwa) systems, 
such as the block system, etc., have been more than 
paralleled in the making of the highest type of ele- 
vator-. While the railwa) block system may go wrong 
if the operative is at fault, yet in the case of an 
elevator like the i Mi- Automatic Elevator, absolute 
safety i- assured, since the Otis elevator acts with 
precision while no human mind ever acts with pre 
cision all the time; it i- not in human nature. 

The i Mi- elevators typify the highest mechanical 
development in thi- particular field. It is impossible 
for any one to tumble down the -hall of one .if these 
elevators. The elevator will not move until every 
elevator gate on every floor of the building is tightly 

closed, and. mole than that, i- locked. 

These < Mis elevator- run with the precision of a 
costly watch. In obedience to the call of an electric 

push button, if it lie one of the many make- of I Mi- 
elevators thus equipped, the elevator rapidly ascends 
and descends the -haft, stopping absolutely at the level 
of the desired floors. In cases of lire ami panic, even 
where an automatic elevator is installed ami the un- 
skilled passenger himself runs the elevator instead of 
the skilled elevator man. it does not endanger life. For 

no matter how it i- operated the elevator will never go 
wrong. It i- absolutely not within it- mechanical pos- 
sibilities to run away or to in any manner become an 
unwary instrument in the hands of a reckless operator. 
Under any and all cases the machinery never forgets 
anything. < If course, mechanical genius of the highest 
type has lent itself to the perfection of the i Mi- ele- 
vator. The fact that the automatic elevator does not 

demand an attendant will recommend it to owner- of 
private buildings where the traffic i- not extensive. 
The danger of a damage suit i- done away with. 

The ( Mis [-'.levator Company has no rivals in its field. 
Before the lire of April i X. [906, it- splendid and 
speedy elevator- had been placed in almost every im- 
portant building in San Francisco. The finest elevator 
Service that the city had at that time wa- in the great 
new Merchant-' Exchange Building. In fact it was 
the first building in San Francisco to possess an cy- 

pres- elevator service, whereby fast elevators trans- 
ferred thousands of business people to and from lh. -ir 
offici in the upper floors of the building while "local" 
elevators carried passengers to the lower floors. Since 
the conflagration engagements have been mad. bj 

dozens oi the line new -kv-scrapcr- to secure the ( Mi- 

Although the < Mi- elevators represent the highest 
known type of elevator on the market today, the com- 
pany i- continuously working to improve and perfect 
it- output. ( )ne of the chief feature- of the company's 
business i- the building of freight elevator- of which 
11 ha- an enormous yearly output. The (Mis freight 
elevators are in universal use throughout the Pacific 
Coast Slate- and in tin- East a- well. For it- special 
purpose the freight elevators manufactured by this 
company are a- perfect machine- a- are the passenger 

car-. — and they are quite a- well known to the class 
of the public that ti-es them as are the passenger ear- 
to the business c. immunity. 

The management of the (Mi- Elevator Company 
i- conservative, progressive, patriotic, and business- 
like. Under the able direction of Mr. 1-'. II. Robbins, 
general manager, the company i- able to quickly fill 
all order- in a thorough and eminently pleasing man- 
ner. As a matter of general interest it will profit own- 
er- of buildings to visit the ..ftice- ..f the ( Mi- Elevator 
Company whether they are contemplating the immedi- 
ate installation ..f elevators or not. 

Shreve Building 

Win. Curlett. Ar, I 

Market Street Bank, Seventh and Market Sts. 

Main Post Office, Mission and Seventh Sts. 


Class A Buildings, Now Being Restored 


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Westinghouse Building 

Knickerbocker, Barker, Bostwit k, 

John c i /.'.-' Pelt on, 

San Francisco 


Position in 

Architectural and Constructive Development 


ICHITECTURAL history began 
with man's first surrounding enclo- 
sure, be it a hut of bark and leaves 
or built of twigs and mud, or built of 
stone; the one with no thought fur- 
ther than that of protection from the 
elements, the other with a further in- 
tent of security from assault, the motive of primitive 
man, in his building, being only for habitation. 

On through centuries architectural accomplish- 
ment marks surely the advance of civilization until 
the dawn of the Christian era, when the science of 
architecture seems to have reached its fullest glory. 
As I do not intend these lines to be an historical 
review we will pass along the path of centuries of 
noble effort but of little importance from a modern 
standpoint in the evolutionary process until came 
the economical production of steel. 

It is for this generation to sec the greatest and 
most sudden advancement, the most startling cast- 
ing aside of precedent in the history of man; there 
are with us today the men whose names must take 
position in architectural and constructive history 
among the greatest. When the first column was 
placed in a masonry wall with the intent of reliev- 
ing the wall i if a superincumbent li lad, thus minimiz- 
ing the thickness of the wall and the encroachment 
upon commercially valuable area, that architect 
lighted the lamp which today illumines the archi- 
tectural world with the blaze of industrial achieve- 
ment; it is that man's light which hangs in our skies 
and casts its rays upon all we of toda) are doing, 
and still there will it shine though our buildings 
may rise story by story even unto forty seven. The 
president of the American Institute of Architecture, 
Mi. George B. Pos1 in [879- in the work of re- 
construction of a pari of the Produce Exchange ol 
Xew York City, did this thing; conditions were im- 
perative and accomplishmenl Followed. 

Ai about the same year Mr. W. L. Jennej was 
engaged in the design of the Home Life Insurance 
Building of Chicago, this being the first complete 
structure (of record) to be built with its floor loads 
carried by a structure independent of its enclosing 
u alls. 

It is with much pride howevei that I call the a1 
tention of the architects and engineers of today 
to a Fact which I believe is known to Few, at least 

outside of our own City, and might still remain un 

known and unheeded but for the catastrophe of 
April 18th, 1906, which rudely assaulted the Ne- 
vada Block, on the corner of Montgomery and Pine 
streets, and tore aside the veil which has hidden 
from us the first reinforcing column, I believe, to be 
placed in a modern wall. The building was com- 
pleted in 1870, several years before the construction 
of either of the buildings herein referred to was 
undertaken. It is therefore my opinion that to Mr. 
David Farquharson, the architect of the building, 
justly belongs the honor of planting the beacon. 
And while upon this subject let us see if a further 
distinction is not due to a San Francisco architect. 
Has it occurred to our new-found friends, who came 
like Moses to lead the children of Israel, that here 
was performed one of the earliest and perhaps tin- 
most important feat in the reinforcing of concrete? 
Long before some of these now experts in reinforced 
concrete were known in this connection, a building 
had been completed in this City embodying and ful- 
filling the most important requirements to be met 
with in ordinary practice. This was the Academy 
of Sciences Building in Market street, near Fourth 
street, which I believe was the herald of the pos- 
sibilities of reinforced concrete construction in this 
country. This building had a complete girder and 
floor-slab construction of reinforced concrete and 
I do not think it will be contradicted if I say that 
this work is the first example in the United States. 
having been completed in [890. And I think to two 
men oi San Francisco, Mr. Geo. \V. Percy, the 
architect of the building, and Mr, Ernest Ransome, 
his collaborator, belong this distinction. The 
Sweeney Observatory ui Golden Gate Park, built b) 
the same gentlemen, has as far as I have observed 
not been referred to l>\ any oi the now conspicuous 

engineers in CI incrctc CI instruct ii in, ) et I l>clie\ e here 
is again one of the most important examples of .1 
complete structure of concrete with reinforcement, 

of record, and certainly is among the earliest \\ e 

have but to cross the count) hue to find at St 
Ford Cni\crsii\ the most complete exposition oi re 

inforced concrete construct 1011. and lesson 111 effici 
encj in the practice of the building arts. The Stan 

tool I ibrarj building was designed by Mr. Perc) 

and constructed by Mr. Ransome. ll was completed. 
I believe, ill iS.jj. 

I .et In inor rest w here h> 'in 'i is due. 


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Rothchild Building 
Geary, Near Stockton Street 
/. M. Rothchild, Ownei John Cutlet Pellon, I 

Morton L. Cook Building 

I >n.< Elevoton John Cotter Pelton, Architect 

Residence of J. J. Mack 
Northeast Corner of Scott Street and Pacific Avenue 

H in. kerboi /. tt . Bat ber, Boslwv k, Owm ■ 

Hunt-Mirk Building 

■ .'.» Pelton. Architect 

Sight-Seeing in San Francisco 

By MARTIAL DAVOUST. Western Press Association 

( )\V is the time for sight-seeing in 
San Francisco. Sm..h the amazing 
ruins will have completely disap- 
peared and a large part of the great 
construction work will be well on 
toward completion. At the present 
time San Francisco "Iters both the 
scene of gigantic building operations and of some 
of the ruins which have become as historic in a 
brief space of time as those of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, but these ruins are not destined to last 
through all the withered centuries, shortly they will 

No prospective \ isiti n- should defer his trip to San 
Francisco feeling, perhaps, he cannot be well cared 
for in the hotels or may not be able to get around 
the city conveniently. All the old and famous hos- 
telries are re-established — of course, in new 
quarters — and many new hotels and elegant apart- 
ment houses have been built and opened up. In 
fact, today one can secure as comfortable quarters 
in San Francisco as in any- city in the world. And 
as for our famous chefs, they are still here, and 
many new celebrities in the cooking line have come. 
In fact. San Francisco still remains par excellence 
the city of the epicure, and the fastidious palate 
must be critical indeed if it will not be satisfied. 

Although some of San Francisco's streets are 
necessarily at this writing in a bad condition and 
make it a little difficult to get around in places, yet 
the Street cars are running almost everywhere; the 
streets are rapidly being repaired, and soon there 
will not be a section of the city inconvenient for 
either horse or automobile. 

For sightseers specially luxurious and comfort- 
able cars are provided in which there is always 
plenty of room for everybody. 

The United Railroads has made special arrange- 
ments for tourists and has provided some of the 
finest sightseeing cars in the United States, which 
run over all the burned district and in the newly 
rebuilt districts, as well as taking in Golden I rate 
Park, the Cliff House and other historic and beauti- 
ful features of San Francisco. These cars have 
been specially built for the occasion and may be 
called the Xew San Francisco street cars, for not 
only the sightseeing cars but most of the other cars 
now used on the lines have been specially built for 
the city and are a great improvement over the 
finest type of cars now being used in Xew York, 
Chicago and other Eastern cities. The United 
Railroads is spending something like twelve mil- 

lion dollars in rebuilding its tracks and in providing 
cars and in general equipment. Any one who has 
seen the huge steel rails — which will defy the 
strongest wear and are embedded in ballast of 
concrete — as well as the unsurpassed new cars 
which are on these lines, will not doubt but that the 

tounst can get around as rapidly in San Francisco 

almost as before. Of course, it is not possible 
within this brief time to entirely reconstruct the 
street car lines of s, , great a city, but the United 
Railroads has done a marvelous work, and, in fact, 
may be said to be one of the chief factors in re- 
storing the confidence of the people of San Fran- 
cisco in their city, for the last embers of the fire 
had not died away when the officials had already 
ordered in the East many fine new cars. I 'resident 
Calhoun himself sent to Chicago and purchased a 
number of cars which had been destined for other 
cities, but which were readily- s, ,1,1 to the I'nited 
Railroads in order to assist the company and to 
help the people of San Francisco. Despite the 
great shortage "t" cars in the East the I'nited Rail- 
roads has rushed work through, s, , that they have 
got a great number of new cars of the most fitting 
design, type, and workmanship that can be se- 
cured. A great number of these cars cost Si 2.500 
each. The construction of some of the new cars 
is of the very best. The interior finish is of ma- 
hogany, highly polished, and ornamented with 
marquetrj : the seats are reversible, with automatic 
foot-rests, have extra high backs, with rolling top 
and corner grab-handles. \ feature of the new cars 
m San Francisco is the wide doors and the compart- 
ment system for both smokers and non-smokers. 

The United Railroads was one of the hardest hit 
institutions by the great conflagration, but it is 
spending more than any other concern in the re- 
habilitation of its system, and those who are dis- 
posed to criticize always regret having done so 
when they thoroughly realize the difficult its vvitll 
which this company has had to contend and the 
amazing feats which it has performed. 

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Cliff House, San Francisco — a Famous Resort 

City Hall, which is Being Restored 

Broadway, Looking East from Buchanan — James Flood Residence in the Foreground 


Pacific Building 
S. W. Corner Fourth and Market Streets 
Class A. Reinforced Concrete Structure — Largest Building of its Kind in the World 

Japanese Tea Garden, Golden Gate Park, S. F. 



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Stow Lake, Golden Gate Park. S. V. 

Room for More Working- 
men in San Francisco 

1. Lick Monument 

2. Starr King Monument 

3. Garfield Statue 

4. Dewey Victory Column 

5. Robt. Lewis Stevenson Memorial 

The reconstruction of San Francisco has pro- 
duced probably the most favorable conditions for 
the laboring man that have ever been known in 
America. It has been estimated that a million dol- 
lars is being spent each week in wages, and the 
unusual demand in all the building trades, ami for 
unskilled labor as well, will continue for a number 
of years. To rehabilitate the business section of 
the city alone it will take twelve thousand new 
buildings, which will cost approximately four hun- 
dred million dollars, and for which the workingman 
will receive one hundred and ninety millions. But 
then there are the residences. Anil then there are 
the streets to he repaired, and sewers and causeways 
to he built, and street railway lines to he recon- 
structed — between ten and twelve millions is being 
spent on this alone — and there are a thousand and 
one- things to be repaired or made anew essential 
to the activities of a great city. 

There is room for man} more workingmen than 
there are in San Francisco at the present time. The 
wage scale climbed for a long while, and the minimum 
scale has long been lost sight of. Five dollars a 
day is on the average small wage for the artisan. 
Bricklayers are getting from seven to nine dollars 
daily, and sometimes more. The wages for cement 
workers, plasterers, lathers, carpenters, black- 
smiths, painters, horseshoers, tinners, boiler-makers, 
teamsters, stationary engineers, cabinet-makers, 
and inside finishers are away up. 

Haven't these high wages kept the city back, you 

ask ? 

Not a bit of it. All this money is put right into 
circulation again. You will see a greater propor- 
tion of well-dressed women to the total population 
on the streets of San Francisco today than in any 
other city in the world. You will find there no distress- 
ful tenements. The people are buying and building 
their own homes. The average yearly wage of the 
daily workman is accounted between $1300 and 
S 1 51 » ). 

More than forty million dollars' worth of lumber 
will lie used by the time the city is reconstructed 
in the actual building operations. For this work 
the carpenters will receive upwards of twenty million 
dollars. The bricklayers will get something like forty- 
two million dollars for their efforts, while the plumbers, 
always lucky, will have to be satisfied with about eleven 
million. The plasterers' share in the reconstruc- 
tion of the city will amount to about five millions. 
The hod-carriers will get fifteen millions: the men 
who clean away the debris will receive the same 
amount. The teamsters will receive more than ten 
millions, while the day laborers will earn twelve 

Residence of Mrs. Eleanor Martin 

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Sawyer Building 
Corner Sutter and Jones Streets 

Houghton Sawyer, Architect 

Utility and Art Are Not Antagonistic 

By I K )l - ( II IT( IN S WYYKK, Architect 

\ ER since the advent of steel cage con- 
struction in America architectural 
critics have decried the skyscraper as a 
sham. Its most characteristic feature, 
the steel frame, lias been buried shame- 
fully under what are seemingly solid 
walls of masonry, capable of support- 
ing themselves. It has long been felt by the architec- 
tural profession that in order to bring the skyscraper 

b) practical constructive necessities. The reinforced 
concrete which fireproofs and strengthens the steel 
frame appears on the exterior, but is modeled and 
treated with a preparation which not only waterproofs 
it. but gives it the texture and the warmth of color of 
a weathered Indiana limestone. There is a total sup- 
pression of all heavy unnecessary masonry, which ma- 
terially reduces the amount of steel in the frame, and 
therefore the cost. The customary suspended false 


Looking up the Slopes of Telegraph Hill, Showing the Rapid Reconstruction 

within the domain of true art (he steel frame should ceilings haw been entirely eliminated b\ the architect, 

be iull\- acknowledged and frankly expressed in the the plastering being done directlj on the under side of 

the reinfi ireed concrete floor slab. This not onh si\ es 

design of the exterior. To do this without the sacri 
lice of all thai is aesthetic has been the problem. 

In both the Sawyer Building and the Citizens' 
National Hank Building the architect has tried to ren- 
der purely structural forms in a way that is pleasing. 
In these buildings there is neither brick, nor stone, nor 
terra-cotta, tied to tin- structural parts a-, a veneer For 
purely architectural effect. Barring the cornice, there 

great expense, lull i;i\cs more height I" the room 

.1 mailer outla) than the old system. The cxtciioi 
walls are six inches thick. The il an onlj 

inches thick, with fourteen-foot spans, and yet are de- 
signed in support -- . 1 1 ■ I ■■ iih load that maj be placed 
upon them. Both the walls and the floors are rem 
forced with corrugated bars. a icel, md b) throwing 

i- n"i an ounce of material used that is not demanded a slight additional reinforcemenl mi., the conipn 

side of the slab, the actual thickness of these flours 
has been reduced to a minimum. This not only signi- 
fies a saving, so far as the yardage of concrete used is 
concerned, but diminishes the steel tonnage by an 
amount necessary to carry the yardage so saved. 

fire, and thus insuring not only perfect fire protection, 
but absolute guarantee against deterioration of the 
steel by corrosion. Steel thus embedded in concrete is 
imperishable, as samples of iron taken from Roman 
work have proved conclusively, pieces having beer 

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Citizens National Bank Building 
Corner Polk Street and Fern Avenue 

Hough' Irchitcct 

A form of column section has been designed by the found in as good condition as when set by Roman 

architect which admits of the concrete fireproofing builders two thousand years ago 

coming in direct contact with every portion of the sur- In the Citizens' National Bank Building even the 

face of the steel, and this fireproofing is practically decorative iron work shown under the windows fulfils 

monolithic from the footings to the roof, having no a constructive office. These iron sections are, in fact, 

cracks or joints capable of admitting heat in case of deep, strong beams which stiffen and wind-brace and 

earthquake-brace the frame. They are, moreover, de- purpose of its use and the underlying principles of its 

signed to encase the steam radiators so that there is construction, then these two buildings have some fair 

no encroachment on office space by these unsightly fix- claim to distinction. They are real and not sham ar- 

tures, and apertures are provided in the metal for the chitecture, and may be considered a development of 

Apartment House 
Corner Jones and Stevelo Streets — for Spencer C. Buckbee and Samuel G. Buckbce 

admission of fresh air, which is warmed as it passes 

into the offices. 

If niie nf the first canons of art is integrity; if to 
claim a place among works of real architectural merit 
a building must frankly express on its exterior the a way that is pleasing. 

a purely American type. The whole architectural 
effect is gotten by simple and direct means, l>\ good 
relative scale and proportion, by contrast nf color; in 
a word- by the handling of hare constructive forms in 

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Sherman & Clay Euilding 
S. W. Corner Sutter and Kearny Streets 

Residence par 

ff o & suit • 4 -TYsw* 

Residence for Robert J. Tyson 

Kenneth MacDonaU 


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Bob Ktrnts, Owne 


Dorn Building 
East Side Powell Street, near Geary Street 

Dodge cr Allen 

Mrs. <>. Lewfaj Owner 

Apartment House on Nob Hill 

Kenneth MacDonald, Jr . A\ 

The Cluett Building 
Howard, between Fourth Street and Howard Court 


Automobiling in San Francisco 



X no place- in the world does the auto 
mobile hold a more important posi- 
tion, both for pleasure and com- 
mercial uses than in San Franci >co 
The demand for motor cars, both 
American and foreign made, is so 
greal thai the local representatives, 
notwithstanding that the) bring out annually from 
the factories all the machines which can be secured 
can ni '1 supply the demand. 

runabout to the big limousine and touring cars was 
pressed into service at the time of the conflagra- 
tion, and the fact that part of the city was saved 
was the resull of the rapidity with which the au- 
thorities attended to the fire fighting with the aid 
of the voluntary gasoline fire wagons. From carry- 
ing the fire chiefs, the military authorities and the 
cu\ officials, i" doing duty a- patrols, hospital 
ambulances and even dynamite wagons, the motor 
cars never faltered and For ten days of strenuous 

Automobiling in Midwinter in San Francisco 

Everything from roads to climate, n- >t only in 
and around this city, but throughout the State 
tends to the use and necessity of motors, and the 
rapidly increasing number of motor car owners and 
enthusiasts all oxer the State has resulted in a 
great deal of improvement on the State highways 
through their efforts. Although the first automo- 
biles made their appearance in this cit) onlj three 
\ear- ago. there are now registered over ten thou- 
sand for the State, most of which arc owned 1 > \ 
local motorists. 

That the motor car- earned the approval and 
confidence of San Francisco people is a matter ol 
history. 1 luring and subsequent to the big fire, a 
vast amount of the work in saving the city was 
accomplished by the use of automobiles. Every 
sort of a car. from a one-cylinder, ten horse-power 

duties always answered the call of the people. No 
harder or more trying endurance could have been 
planned than thi >se da) - i if da-lung i >\ er the Stl i 
of a burning city, carrying all sorts of load-, with 
the drivers caring little about the engine of the 
machines and less about the rough condition of the 
streets. Fifty miles an hour was the usual speed 
for the cars, especiall) those in the emergency 
hi ispital sen ice. 

This test alone brought the automobile into its 
own in this city, and ever since the fire the people 
have been automobile crazy, t Iver twenty-five new 
agencies have opened -ale-rooms since the fire, and 
even now with the forty odd representatives of 
motors the demand is still in advance of the supply. 

Another cause for the phenomenal success oi the 
automobile trade in San Francisco is the harmon) 

Wm. H. Hanson and His Packard Touring Car 

with which the members of the Automobile Club 
of California and the members of the Automobile 

Dealers' Association of California work to I st 

the game, both Erom a commercial and sporting 
standpoint. Two endurance tours, and gymhkana 

in the events which included special match races, 
and features for clever driving. 

Probably the must important event to be held in 
local motordom was the big automobile show, which 
took place in the Coliseum the latter part of Febru- 

contests were held last season under the auspices of ary under the combined auspices of the Dealers' 
the club, i her two hundred machines took part Association and the Automobile Club. Notwith- 

Wm. H. Crim and Party in His Auto 

standing that the event was the first of its kind to 
be held in this city, the show, both From an artistic 
and a financial outlook, proved an unqualified suc- 

The exhibition was started at a moment's notice, 
and the work < ■ f planning the details for the secur- 
ing of the [907 machines, together with the decora- 
ting of the big ( 0I1 scum were in the hands of a show 
committee, composed of Homer Boushey, of the 
Hovey-Boushey Company; Fred I. in/, of the Linz- 
Sanborn Company, and S. ( hapman of the Pioneer 
Automobile Company. The scarcity of late models 
was the one drawback at the time of the forming of 
the association, which was done for the sole object of 
giving the show. 

( me of 1 lie first things the show commit tee accom- 

I his movement, which is to build a driveway for 
tin- entire t w ent\ --eight miles between the two 
places, has been under consideration by the motor- 
ists of this city for the past two years and only 
recently the officers of the club opened a subscrip- 
tion among the members for the purpose of building 
the road. 1 Iver S40.000 was subscribed before the 
fire, and the work was to have begun shortly there- 

Immediately after the fire, however, the officials 
of the club found that owing to the increased de- 
mand, price of labor and materials, the cost of the 
boulevard would be increased several thousand dol- 
lars. The absolute necessity for a decent exit 
from the city caused the Dealers' Association to 
announce that the principal object for the holding 

James D. Phelan in His Auto Car 

plished was the chartering . if a special train to leavi 
Chicago in time to bring out the largest shipments 
of 1007 111.. tor cars ever shipped at one time. \s 
a result of the efforts ,,f the committee the local 
agents had. for the most part received their new 
cars in time for the show. ( Iver two hundred ma- 
chines, ranging from the runabouts to the sixty 
horse-power touring cars were on exhibition. 

Like the shows in New York and Chicago, the 
local exhibition demonstrated t.. the dealers and 
the motor-buying public the great necessity for 
the automobiles, and if for no other purpose than 
the selling of machines proved a success for the 
exhibitors. Nearly every agent who had a machine 
on the floor reported sales, besides the getting in 
touch with hundreds of possible buyers of autos. 

Besides assisting the Dealers" Association in the 
holding of the show, the Automobile Club has ac- 
complished a great deal towards the building of a 
boulevard between San Francisco and San Mate... 

of the motor show was t.. aid the building of the 
roadway, in which all San Franciscans should take 
an interest. As a result, the efforts of the club and 
the dealers, together with the support of the motor- 
ists and 1. .\ ers ■ 'I g I r. lads, the shi i\v will probably 

be the means of the city having an early completion 
of a fine drivewa\ . 

The main cause of complaint which the local 
agents have is the po<>r freight accommodations 
offered by the transcontinental railroads. It is 
nothing unusual for an agent to have to wait front 
one to four months to receive his shipment of 
machines from the eastern factories. This will 
probably be remedied in the near future by the 
agents deciding either on special arrangements with 
some one railroad or in making their shipments by 
steamer. With all of the dealers out of cars and 
the public clamoring for machines, the local field 
of the motor industry has a great future. 

San Francisco Has Emerged 

By 11. L. HOLLAND, Western Press Association 

X THIS history of the rehabilitation of 
the City of San Francisco will be 
found a comprehensive exposition of 
its material resources, containing 
much pertinent information of prac- 
tical value to those who have evidenced 
their faith in its upbuilding. This 
pictorial and statistical presentation of its physical 
appearance, brought about during a period of uncer- 
tainty in which perplexing problems involving eco- 
nomic interests were determining, impressively sug- 
gests the further rapid and general growth of the 

Concerning San Francisco there now prevails, both 
at home and abroad, the view that it has, by reason 
of the magnitude and stability of its progress, reached 
an unassailable position in the estimation of the 
financial world. Foreign capital has been, and is 
now- being, largely invested in the establishment of 
various industries and in the general improvement of 
the city. The future of the metropolis is assured, and 
the hopes of the energetic and far-seeing men who 
inaugurated the era of its reconstruction are thereby 

Beginning witli hostilities between the United 
States and Spain, San Francisco began to realize its 
real importance as a commercial metropolis. Its 
marine and mercantile interests were greatly stimu- 
lated, and the city entered upon a career of increas- 
ing prosperity which continued to the time of the 
great fire. During this period the productiveness and 
expansion of its best interests were unexampled, 
foreign capital found remunerative investment and a 
feeling of civic pride was aroused ami developed. 
As a common result, public sentiment was directed 
to the necessity of improving the character of tin- 
city's private and public buildings, and the structural 
appearance of San Francisco was transformed. 
Thoroughfares wrrc dignified In- the erection of 
costly buildings given over to the requirements of 
trade and commerce, and in obedience t" the demands 
of an energetic metropolis. This same purpose !•> 
preserve the distinction it had acquired fur public 
spiritedness and a comprehensive understanding of its 
building needs became universal in the early stages 
of the present reconstruction period, ami this general 
determination is now largely evidenced in the restora 
t ii n) of notable and costly structures and in the erection 
nf innumerable buildings of a superior elass. The 
desirability of tin- citj a- a place for the safe invest- 
ment of capital in realty ami its improvements has. in 
consequence, been enhanced, the field enlarged ami 
its opportunities absorbed. Values have so far in- 

The Donahue Statue 

Lotta Fountain 

1 as to further attract the attention of money 
centers of the East, and building enterprises of the 
highest importance, promoted and financed in New 
York, Chicago and other cities, are adding to the 
wealth and resources of this city. When rebuill San 
Francisco, in all likelihood, will repn enl in it- 
mart- of trade, its hotels, theaters and it* public build- 
ings the most perfect types of modern architecture. 

Notwithstanding financial entanglements arising 
from a conflict of interests between the fire insurance 
companies involved and man) of their policy holders, 
San Francisco has been rapidly rebuilt. Primarily, 
tin- is due to the indomitable spirit of it- citizens, t i 

the long distances between San Francisco and the 
mills, and to tin' cost and delay incident to trans- 
continental transportation. California is rich in 
mineral ores necessary to the manufacture of iron 
and steel, possesses an abundance of native fuel and 
has clu-ap communication with the cuke furnace- of 
Siberia. With the building of extensive iron and 
-teel plant- on the shores of the bay contiguous to 
tlii- city the future expansion of San Francisco will 
I" expedited and it- cost materially cheapened. 

The recent expenditure of large sums of n 

public and private enterprises has broadened the scope 
• if San Francisco's activities and permanent!) fixed 

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Building for Miss Jennie M. Blair "'■ 

Northwest Corner of Ellis and Mason Streets 

the influx of new capital and to a general realization 
of it- possibilities. The compensating feature- of the 
late catastrophe have been made especially plain in 
focusing the attention of the world upon San Fran- 
cisco, not alone as the chief cit\ of the Pacific Coast, 
but owing to the mineral and other natural wealth of 
this State, a probable manufacturing competitor. Its 
geographical position, transportation and other gen- 
eral interests will conspire to make of it an effectual 
rival of the powerful producing cities of the East. 
( >ne of the chief difficulties encountered in rebuild- 
ing the city has been, and is, a shortage of structural 
steel — retarding it- growth and entailing the loss of 
much money. This circumstance can be attributed to 

its status in the world of finance. It has become the 
distributing point For the surplus of wealth centralized 
here for investment, and which i- now being profitably 
employed in exploiting the new gold held- of Nevada. 
The reciprocal relation- thus established between this 
city, the Fast and mining interest- of promising mag- 
nitude have created a further demand for active 
capital and the products of local mills and factories. 
The consolidation, for the time being, of main of 
the mercantile and manufacturing interests of San 
Francisco in the near neighborhood of it- railway 
terminals has changed the complexion of a hitherto 
comparatively unknown district. It has materially 
added to the wealth of the "Mission" and enhanced 

its real estate values, ["his change has been brought 
about by the extension of the shipping facilities of the 
Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railway systems, to 
which, in all likelihood, will be added the terminal of 
the Western Pacific railway, which arc now and will 
be connected by inlets with deep water. Owing to 
the increase of revenue arising from the general 
prosperity of the city's shipping interests it is pro- 
posed to present to the Legislature fur enactment at 
its next session a law authorizing the issue of bonds, 
the proceeds of which are to be expended in further 
enlarging and extending the piers and other facilities 
of the water front. It is believed, in that event, the 

ing the water front from end to end, and will connect 
by a practical and safe route the wholesale and manu- 
facturing interests adjacent to the bay. The extension 
of this transporting facility will expedite by quick 
carriage not only the business of the city's great trans- 
continental terminals, hut also of its ocean freight 

A panoramic view of the new shipping district of 
San Francisco reveals shifting scenes of interest and 
gayety. The general aspect of its principal streets 
discloses quaint and picturesque bits of architecture. 
Van Ness avenue, animated with eager life, recalls 
the .Market street of old. at one time in its history 

i JtHm 


Equipptd with Otii ' 

Wells Fargo Building, Mission Street, Corner Second 

I , hitecli 

steadily increasing revenues arising from tolls and 
similar charge-, will, as proposed, indemnify the Stale, 
otherwise the bonds will In redeemed by a special tax 

submitted to a popular vote of the city wherein the 

improvements are made. San Francisco will he tre- 
mendously benefited by the passage of this measure 
as. owing to its growing volume of marine shipments. 
the bonds will prove a safe investment for buyers of 
securities. It is also suggested the Stale extend and 
operate the "Bell Railway" for the purpose of bring 
ing into dose communication all parts of the harboi 
shore. This road, ii prolonged, will unite the northern 
and southern ends of its shipping facilities h\ travel 

the most typical in the world. Within this quarter 
an' gathered both the economies and the pleasures, 

the necessities and luxuries of social life. It com 

prehensively typifies the San Francisco of the pasl 

and the future in its cosmopolitanism and atmosphere. 
It is a study of "how lo get there," an unique and sue 
cessful human error! Ii has been transformed by 
courage, quick to utilize opportunity, and embodies 

the spirit of the limes. The manner of its changing 
was as hold a- ils results are practical and startling. 

Dwellings of the opulent have been converted into 

mails of trade and grass) plots into siu-s of commerce 

within a night, Miniature hotels, richl) appointed. 

Parisian shops, brilliant cafes and hospitable theaters 
solicit the lovers of pleasure, art and ease. The 
metropolitan and artistically equipped department 
stores of the district, upon the Furnishings of which 
have been expended fortunes, arc an earmark of the 
liberal and indomitable enterprise that is being directed 
ti> the improving and beautifying of the whole city. 
Further to the west and paralleling Van Ness ave- 
nue is Fillmore street, also lately l;i\ in over to the 
wants of the purchasing public. California and 
( Icarv streets, lesser arteries of trade, form the 

enterprise transformed. The havoc caused by the 

conflagration has been replaced with buildings, 

. completed and in course of erection, and the feeling of 
panic that followed the realization of the .ureal 

financial loss which depressed San Francisco has been 
changed to elation. Within this district is an area 
comprised of twenty-five hundred and more acres, 
equal in extent to live hundred or more city blocks of 
the most desirable business part of the city, nearly all 
"i which have been improved, either by the construc- 
tion of modernized buildings or the clearing awa\ oi 

.... « H J j n g g 

::c; a u a! 

- B n p 

■ u ■ * 

r r r 


New Thurlow Block 
S. E. Corner Sutter and Kearny Streets 

Armitat ' 1 1 kittcts 

northern and southern boundaries of this imperfect 
quadrilateral within which the larger part of the 
retail business is now being done. Van Ness avenue 
is the western boundary of the major portion of the 
burned section, and from vantage points of observa- 
tion, formed by the intersection of cross-town streets. 

a comprehensive view of the permanent rehabilitation 
of the city is visible. Beyond this section and stretch- 
ing out to the hay are some four square miles of terri- 
tory covered with the wreckage and ruins of earth- 
quake and fire — presenting a scene of desolation 
which has been, through the courageous activity of 

debris. Valuable parcels of this realty are being held, 
unimproved, for speculation purposes, which policy, 
while apparently retarding the more rapid and stable 
expansion of the burned district is proving of large 
financial profit to its projectors. 

The stringency of the money market during the six 
months immediately following the fire, owing to the 
demand for gold on the part of commercial and 
manufacturing interests of the country, has bad no 
appreciable effect upon the growth of the city. 
According to a statement of the United States Treas- 
ury it was during this crucial period in the hist 

rehabilitation, that Secretary Shaw was forced to 
release, by the redemption of securities, some sixty 
million of dollars to satisfy the demands of financial 
circles to transact the business of the country and, in 
addition thereto, has imported during the entire period 
since the disaster one hundred and ten millions of 
gold coin for the same purpose. This statement, 
officially made, together with the assertion that firms 
of international credit were compelled to pay seven 
per cent, on loans, is forceful testimony t" the diffi- 
culties overcome in rebuilding. 

dependent of these sums is the expenditure to be ulti- 
mately incurred by the city in the departments of 
street and sewage works, in perfecting other utilities 
anil in the restoration of its public offices. It is esti- 
mated that within the coming five years San Fran- 
cisco will have solved, by its marvelous growth, the 
problem of the- most recent and approved methods of 
building by the further expenditure of vast sums of 
money necessary to this purpose. The millions thus 
distributed will be returned, and are now returning, 
to investors in the form of increased values and 

Erected by the Citizens of San Francisco in Honor of the 
California Volunteers, Spanish-American War 

To the present time there has been expended, rentals in that portion of the citj most effected by the 

approximately, in the work of reconstructing San fire and as well in an area of more than twenty square 

Francisco, twenty millions ,,f dollars for temporary, miles of dwellings. The population of the city will 

and some sixtj millions of dollars for permanent have kept pace with its general expansion, and the 

buildings. In repairing tin- handsome office struc- 
tures Originally erected at an enormous outlaw 
which remained standing when the task of rehabilita- 
tion began, an additional sum of twent) million have 
been spent. These sums aggregate a total of one hun- 
dred millions of dollars, which does not include the 
cost ol erecting ten thousand or more cottages and 
of restoring many of the city's costh residences. In- 

most sanguine hopes of a Greater San Francisco 
brilliantly realized. 

Trior to the disaster an elaborate system of street 

and park improvements for the purpose of beautifj 
ing San Francisco and to be ratified bj public approval 

was formulated under the direction of an association 

of citizens. ^mong these gentlemen are representa- 
tive- of not a few of the oldest and wealthiest estates 

in the city and county of San Francisco who arc, 
in the main, responsible for the authorization of a 
system of urban and suburban embellishment, hitherto 
unequaled. To them was delegated, with the ai< 1 of 
Architect General Burnham, who conceived the gen- 
eral building scheme of the Columbian Exposition, 
and who created the intact Merchants' Exchange, the 
task of practically carrying out the undertaking. The 
amount of money involved and the time to be ex- 
pended in performing this work, as originally planned, 

of refurnishing and redecorating Golden < late. Jeffer- 
son, Washington and other parks has been deterred, 
these public pleasure resorts having been for months 
the beautiful homes of the fire sufferers. The act of 

government in speedily sending financial, hospital and 
military aid to the city at the time of its deepest and 

darkest distress served to buoy the spirh and courage 

of the people. The gates of Presido Reservation were 
thrown open ami its parks and buildings also became 
happy places i if refuge. 

W r t V.WT JW»<::;#M3$kfiFai 

M. J. Brandenstein Building 

were one hundred million of dollars and a period of 
ten years. To the members of this association and 
other leading citizens was entrusted the reorganization 
of the city's affairs during the days immediately fol- 
lowing the memorable eighteenth of April, and who 
voluntarily supplemented the immediate and effective 
work of the municipal authorities. Civic pride has 
not permitted the "Burnham scheme" to die, for the 
continuous efforts of the association's members are 
visible in the modifications of the original plans now 
under way and accomplished, and which have been 
officially adopted. The more practical suggestions of 
the scheme have been accepted, ami the further work 

Eastern capital has been and is concretely typified 
in the Mills Building, which remains the most ornate 
ami among the costliest of the pioneer office structures 
of the city. It. too. is a monument to a native genius 
and local pride that finds further expression in the 
towering walls of the new Palace. San Francisco's 
most famous hostelry, now in course of construction, 
and to the St. Francis, a hotel of beauty and ele- 
gance. These valuable ami luxurious properties were 
built and are owned by local estates of wealth, whose 
possessors reside abroad, hut who yet retain their 
immense holdings in this metropolis intact. Among 
other striking structures, which withstood the Stress 

of the disaster, is the General Postoffice, a noble 
pile of marble and interior design and ornamentation, 
and the grandeur of its corridors and the mosaic of 
its walls were scarcely disturbed by the force of the 
earthquake. It represents the highest expression in 
national architecture, and although widely different in 
design is, in its happy fate, singularly like the Mint. 
The latter escaped destruction only after a terrific and 
memorable struggle — a struggle that further endears 
the old building to San Francisans and perpetuates its 
historic associations. 

From a period of gloom San Francisco has emerged 
triumphant. Within a year it has re-established its 
credit ; its banks overflow with the savings of labor 
and the accumulations of wealth. Its commerce has 
enlarged and its public utilities are restored. The 
functions of government are normal and its duties, 
despite friction incident to the travail of a new and 
glorious birth, are being satisfactorily discharged. 

Out of chaos has come order, anil although the 
clouds were dark and ominous, the silver lining has 
been beautifully revealed. 

-i '.'■ ' •■ ■ /t.i j ■ .■ ■/'■■■•■ 


-T PATERSON ROi.5 _.-,-„..,,_... 
g w BURSRF.N '""'TCCTi 

Sing Fat & Co.'s Building, Chinese and Japanese Bazaar 
S. W. Cor. California and Dupont Streets 

pg jffiftfflg 

D. S. Dorn, Ovine 

Hotel Rex 
Turk Street, between Jones and Leavenworth Streets 

Savage Building 
Powell Street, between Geary and O'Farrell Streets 

, ■^ taaa *» ™ '-IT 

sfe a * * ft I Iffi : $- v i ' ' MSI 

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mrrm. '?&/& « - » ^ WW Wp^"" 

-■Tan—- — <w— it nPJ 1 J? -?? i r,!,^" 1 

1 ! rWrrrmrflwrr.- * 

Eugene Stoupe Building 
N. E. Cor. Post and Larkin Streets 

David I I leman 

n iff '" f H*LJ * __ 1 —^L*T5JWW| III 

I!' Ill "HI!?* 
— i — *■ 

^r^uUy*g^^|W» ^■JW^K ! ^T^1^S'-^@ S J 


.1/'? / : / ( jji/,' 7. Sullivan, Owner 

The White House, Raphael Weill & Co., Inc. 
Cor. Grant Avenue and Sutter Streets - 


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r m £ ^Ff F "'®%W 'Mm^ffM^'-r^ r 'W r ~~ W T^ r " HPT :t^T" '■-"'•^ 

Psfcs - £ v#/ i'Pi *lra \ phm-L-'i r--iK-- 


Sing Chong Co., Inc., Building, Chinese and Japanese Bazaar 

N. W. Cor. California and Dupont Streets ' Pater '>'"■". ■' W- «<"^'.'». Architects 


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' fell wl* 

■Ii Ha 




5 Mtf: I 



!KHIEtt* ; ?iHr 

The Hetman-Weil Building 

Albert Pusis. Archiltft 

Tait's Pompe'an Garden, a Famous Resort 
Cor. Van Ness Avenue and Eddy Street 

\dadiaon 6 Bur) i l 

California Optical Co. Building 
S. E. Cor. Grant Avenue and Post Street 



By A. I.. BARNARD, Western Press Association 

III'', water front of San Francisco 
comprehensively pictures the gen- 
eral activity of the city. It is the 
pulse of local, industrial, commer- 
cial ami transportation interests and 
reveals the spirit and general prog- 
ress of a rejuvenated metropolis. 
The harbor, always regarded as the medium by 
which San Francisco was to attain civic greatness 

and the time of the city's disaster is reflected in the 
impetus given the shipping of this port. The pro- 
phetic view of the marine greatness of the me- 
tropolis, set forth in "Modern San Francisco," a 
volume issued under the management directing this 
enterprise, has been realized and the great benefits 
accruing to the city, the State and the Pacific Coast 
are now magnificently apparent, The present flat- 
tering condition of the city's marine and shipping 

Chart Showing Route of the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

and mercantile power, ha- been the first of the city's 
resources to respond to the wide-spread demands 
made upon it. Aside from its foreign interests it 
has been the most powerful ally of the builders en- 
gaged in the work of rehabilitation. Its individual 
importance is enlarged, and the sphere of its future 
usefulness requires the consideration of vast im- 
provements and the most intelligent and liberal 
consideration. Millions are to be spent during the 
coming years in addition to sums already appropri- 
ated for the same objects, in encouraging its 
domestic and foreign trade, in materially and sub- 
stantially adding to its facilities for the safe dock- 
ing of the largest of ocean freight carriers, for the 
dredging of its inlets, and the building of seawalls. 
The unprecedented prosperity of the whole country 
during the period intervening between the present 

interests i- due mainly to the circumstances that 
after the most heroic struggles these utilities were 
saved comparatively unimpaired which enabled com- 
mercial and industrial enterprises to recoup immedi- 
ately after the fire. The policy of the Harbor Com- 
missioners to give water front improvements a 
stable character and to expend the sum of two or 
more millions of dollars appropriated by the Legis- 
lature in building seawalls and enlarging berthing 
and docking facilities is being energetically prose- 
cuted. The following summary of proposed additions 
and enlargements, together with a forecast of the 
ultimate widening and utilization of Islais Creek, 
present a gratifying view of the plans contemplated 
and the work now in progress: To direct the dis- 
bursement of the sum of two millions of dollars arising 
from the bond issue of November, 1905, and recently 

favorably passed upon by the Slate Supreme Court, to 
the erection of 4,400 feet of seawall, to cost $770,000; 
to extend East Street along the latter southward, and 
lu improve the usefulness of the same by curbing, 
paving and widening to accommodate the demands of 
traffic. This commercial thoroughfare will then pre- 
sent a uniform and generous appearance, and will ex- 
lend from the seawalls northward to the extreme 
southern limits of shipping and industrial activity. 
The sum of $125,000 will be given over to this pur- 
pose, to which should be added the cost of building 
thirteen modern cylindrical piers to replace the ones 
in use. and which will be constructed at intervals 
from the Pacific Mail Dock at the foot of Harrison 
Street along the proposed seawall, the most important 
section of the water front of San Francisco, reaching 
from Fishermen's Wharf, to the north, to Central 

a lease of the same for a period of fifteen years. 
The Harbor Commissioners reserve the right to 
collect all lolls and dockage, which amounts to a 
million per year. The remainder after deducting 
the cost of maintenance, reverts to the State. The 
immense passenger and freight traffic of the Pacific 
Mail Company will doubtless soon require addi- 
tional room for the transaction and expediting of 
its business with the Orient and home connections. 
After the reconstruction of the water front, ex- 
clusive of plans projected for China Basin, the 
aggregate length of its berth room will lie 40.104 
feet, an increase of 7,283 feet. Along the seawall, 
when completed and available for landing purposes. 
the length of bulkhead will equal 10.240 feet, an 
increase of 1,455 leet - 1" ne practicability of the 
extension of the seawall is further emphasized in 

The Mongolia 

Basin, a distance of three and a quarter miles. The 
erection of the new seawall will add eight blocks, equal 
in area to twenty fifty-vara lots, to the resources of 
the Harbor Commission, ami will prove the source 
of additional revenues for improvement purposes. 

These lots at a conservative estimate will he worth a 
million dollars and, of course, become the properly of 
the State. The agencies of the water front practically 
uninjured by the effects of the disaster included ten 
piers Soo feel in length and twenty-sis; 600 feet 
long, and the necessary facilities for the passenger 

boats plying between ihis city, Oakland, Alameda. 
Berkeley and other bay shore cities, hi addition 
thereto were the four slip- used by the railway 

companies for the transbay movement ol freights, 
with which accessories the' commercial rehabilita 
lion of San Francisco was begun. The Pacific Mail 

Company advanced lo the Stale in the form of 

rentals the sum of $371. with which was con- 
structed two of its largesl piers, the companj taking 

the fact that the bulkhead and berthing space ol 
China Basin are to he conserved and added to the 
water front's present advantages. The money to 
he used for this purpose will How from the swiftly 
increasing tonnage of this poii. The proposed 
improvement at [slais ('reek, an inlel of the bay 
forming natural dockage facilities, presents lo the 
Harbor Commissioners a field for additional in- 
vestigation and exploitation. The engineering 

problems to he overcome are simple, among which 
are its dredging and the building of retaining walls. 
The latter will reclaim a large area of mud flats and 
impound the silt. To remove the latter, amounting 
to some (.,500,000 yards, will require $360,000, and 
for tin' erection of 8,000 feel of seawall a further 
sum of $1,500,000 is necessary. When these plans 

are carried out, the Slate will possess 4,000 feel of 

navigable water-way, 200 feel in width, reaching 
from the bay to the interior of an industrial and 
commercial center ol the ciiv, ["he advantage of 

this pn >jected scheme to tap the business activity of 
the cit) i- obvious. It is also proposed to dredge 
Channel Street, another important water-waj to 
the bay in the immediate neighborhood of the rail- 
way terminals, by deeper dredging, and to broaden 
to a width of I'm feet its present conveniences for 
the handling of building material. 

The dockage tolls in San Francisco arc controlled 
by the State and tabulated on a liberal and simple 
plan, it being the only considerable American port 
whose finances are so governed. The rates charged 
are normal, and are expended <>n the wharves and 
in their management. These expenses are naturally 

growing with the commerce of San Francisco, and 
in consequence the further improvement of tin- 
water fri nit is assured <>n a scale commensurate 
with its relative position in the world of shipping. 
It is the chief port of entry for the Pacific Ocean, 
and tltc volume of its imports ami exports compare 
favorably with those of New Yoik. Philadelphia 
ami Boston. New < Irleans alone equals it in the 
increase of its marine business. its tonnage, which 

iii all probability will exceed eight million tons in 
1907, elevates it to a position equalled only by the 
tonnage of Liverpool, Antwerp and Rotterdam, 

three of the chief ports of the I lid World. 

U. S. Gunboat at Dock 

An Oil Pipe Line Across the Isthmus 

of Panama 

all the articles of commerce were as 
volatile as crude petroleum oil, Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and his administration 
would not need to lend their splendid 
energies to the building of the 
Panama Canal. We could pipe our 
products across the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama from the hold of the vessel waiting on the At- 
lantic side of the Isthmus to the craft on the Pacific 
side and vice versa. This is precisely what a San 
Francisco concern, the Union ( >il Company of Cali- 
fornia, which really belongs to the whole Pacific Coast, 
has done. Through the completion of this pipe line 
the company may pump oil from the tanks of their 

The importance of the growth and development of 
the mineral oils of California is of vast significance to 
every industry of the Pacific Coast; it means much not 
only to the entire West and to the Orient, but one 
may say without exaggeration to a large part of the 
civilized world. The reason is obvious. No other fuel 
ur illuminant may be so easily and cheaply transported 
or lends itself to such a variety of commercial uses. 
As a cheap fuel which will not be displaced, California 
petroleum is now used on most of the locomotive 
engines of the far western railway lines, it is used 
on many stationary engines; it is used on steam vessels 
and cither marine craft, coming opportunely when 
the high price of coal as fuel was a serious bar, by 

The Korea 

steamers on the Atlantic side across the Isthmus 
through the pipe line tn their craft ml the Pacific side 

and vice versa. This amazing achievement is not so 

startling in this day of industrial wonders as it would 
have been iii the times iif Jules Verne. Nevertheless, 

it marks a new era ill many of the manufacturing in- 
dustries uf the Atlantic ( oast which can profitably use 
petroleum; ii is one uf the big accomplishments of the 


California crude nil has become almost as famous 
as iis gold, despite the fact that it is only compara- 
tivel) a lew years since the existence of general de 
pusits in the Slate became known throughout the 
world. From a monitarj standpoint, however, the 
production uf petroleum is the greatest industrj in ilk- 
State and far exceeds that of gold 

reason uf its gnat expense, to the extension uf traffic 
facilities. California petroleum came into immediate 
favor and "oil burners" supplanted the crude ami ex- 
pensive methods in vogue mi railroad ami steamships 
\ii fuel is so easily loaded and carried, nor gives as 

great a steam cuieieno for the COSt uf il. Tank 

steamers have become a feature of our trans-Pacific 
commerce, ami in China, Japan ami the Philippines 
we have seen much California petroleum which, in- 
deed, now ranks among our leading exporl 

The Union < 'il Company of California, one of the 
strongest and largest concerns in the United Slates. 
which has been in the oil business for aboul a quarter 
><i a century, has taken a prominent pari in bringing 
California to the poinl where u is looked tu as a 
chief source of the world's petroleum in coming gen. 

rations, [ndeed, the greatest oil discovery that the 
outside world had ever known occurred on lands of 
the Union Oil Company of California in Santa Bar- 
bara County when a stupendous gusher broke forth 
with the amazing yield of fifteen thousand barrels of 
fine oil a day. The amazing find caused great excite- 
ment in this region where, hv the way. the Union ( >il 
Compan) of California owns 77.000 acres of land, in- 
cluding fourteen miles of sea coast. The oil is of 
high gravity ami Ai quality; in fact there is mine bet- 
ter. Prospectors rushed into the country eager to buy 
at fabulous prices territory known as oil land, and the 
resulting excitement can only be compared to that 
which ensues on the finding" of gold in a new and 
frontier country. 

The Union Oil Company is heavily interested in 
great properties in all the oil-producing counties of 
California: Kern. Fresno, Los Angeles. Ventura, 
( (range, San Benito, etc. When one of its great wells 
on the south slope of the Lompoc incline in Santa Bar- 
bara County was discovered it was thought by engi- 
neers that the remarkable oil formation existed for 
more than twenty miles, this theory has been borne 
out by subsequent developments. 

In line with the spirit of the age the company 
not only controls it-- own sources of supply but the 
mediums through which these supplies are conveyed 
to the purchasers throughout the world. The com- 
pany is thus absolutely independent of common car- 
riers, anil, besides this it may market its goods both 
quickly and economically, saving to itself the large 
profits of middlemen. It-- extensive pipe lines 
throughout California, its large refineries, it-, fleets of 
fast oil-steamers ami other vessels, and its admirable 
shipping facilities embracing the most modern wharves, 
docks and piers, place the company in command of the 
essentials of a vast business. It possesses in abundance 
the natural supply of a world commodity and the 
means to place this supply to the world's demands in 
marketable form. The pipe lines of the Union ( >il 
Company of California have immensely stimulated the 
industry as a whole. 

The company enjoys exceptional shipping facilities. 
At the company's wharf at Oleum in San Francisco 
Bay, the largest vessels can tie up and in a remark- 
ably short space of time discharge or receive their 
cargoes ; the tracks of both the Santa Fe and Southern 
Pacific railroads run to the end of the wharf. The 
facilities for distribution are apparent when it is 
known that the company has at least seventeen dis- 
tributing points in California, three in Hawaii, be- 
sides others in Portland, Seattle. Vancouver, l'>. C, 
Nome. Alaska, and other places. 

Not only is the company prepared to deliver oil to 
manufacturers and consumers of almost every country 
washed by the Pacific Ocean, but it has extended its 
connections to the Atlantic through its pipe line as 
already noted. The pipe line and plant have a capac- 
ity of 25,000 barrels a da) . 

The manner in which the Union Oil Company of 
California has extended the market for California 

petroleum ma) be known by the fact that it manufac- 
tures the best asphaltum in the world. This asphaltum 
makes the cheapest and most popular, the nm-i durable, 
ill' most reliable, anil the most convenient paving 
known. All the big Eastern cities use this brand of 
asphaltum. which is known as the Diamond brand. 
In New York City alone no less than two hundred and 
twenty-eight streets are paved with it. The demand 
for the Diamond brand of asphaltum has advanced 
with great rapidity. In fact asphalt is recognized as 
the best street paving material. Twelve or fifteen 
years agi 1 one hundred tons of asphalt was considered 
a great supply. Today a vessel will load twenty-live 
hundred tons at the Union < >il Company's Oleum 
wharf and no one will think anything about it. 

Pacific Coast municipalities and, in truth, cities any- 
where which are considering the perplexing problem 
of street improvement, will save time and money and 
secure better thoroughfares b) consulting Mr. John 
Baker, Jr., who has the direction of the manufactur- 
ing and sales department of the Union 1 HI Company 
of California and of the California Asphaltum sales 
agency. Under Mr. Baker's able management the use 
of California asphaltum has increased to a remarkable 

degree. The seemingly prosaic subject is a far more 
technical one than the average layman is aware. And 
it is only by an infinite deal of scientific study and the 

Hooker & Lent Building 
S. W. Corner First and Market Streets 

Meyer & O'Brien, Architects 

constant application of patience ami the assistance of 
great capital combined with excellent management 
that the Diamond brand of asphaltum has reached a 
degree of perfection insomuch that it stands above 
and beyond competition. 

The rapid rise of Mr. Baker shows what it is possi- 
ble for a young man to make of himself in the oil 
industry. John Baker, Jr., was born October 28, 
[872, at Bristol, England. At the aye of fourteen he 
came to Los Angeles. When still a very young boy 

Mr. 1 laker entered business and since January, 1899, 
he has been, as already stated, head of the manufac- 
turing and sales department of the Union Oil Company 
of California, with headquarters at San Francisco. 
Mr. 1 laker is, as well, a member of the Executive 
Board of the Union < )il Company, and president of the 
Claremont Oil Company of San Francisco, which owns 
a number of large producing wells' in Kern County, 
besides holding other responsible positions of a deeply 
important executive and financial character. 

Six Company's Building 
W. Side of Commercial Street, between Kearny and Dupont Streets 

Petroleum, a Cheap Fuel, Renders San 
Francisco a Promising: Industrial Center 

l proximity of San Francisco to the it may be used in smelting operations, so that il fills 
argest "il fields in the world is to satisfaction every use for which coal was formerly 

an incalculably valuable commercial 

asset, and one which must not be 

overlooked in an estimation oi the 

city's future a^ an industrial center. 

I '.eh ire the productii m i if crude pet n i 

required. The many uses to which < alifornia petro 
leum and asphalt are being put in the rebuilding of 
San Francisco are so obvious as not to require com- 
i hie of the men who tapped the rocks or, more pre- 

leum oil in large quantities, coal was the fuel most cisely, oil sands, from which oil gushed forth in Cali- 
used, and as it was necessary to import this commodity fornia was Mr. I. \ < 'hanslor of Los Vngeles, presi- 

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TllJt^r^ j ^nnnnmmr mmffyrrmrm^B 


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fflfl I - I3C0 . 

Herman Levy Building ' T. Ehrcnpfort, Architect 

N. E. Corner Third and Stevenson, Adjoining the "Examiner" 

from considerable distances it seemed improbable that dent of the Associated ( til Company of California, one 

San Francisco would be enabled to compete in maun- of the largest concerns of its kind in the world 
factories with Eastern center-. Oil, however, is Found The names of Mr. Chanslor and his associates, the 

to be a better fuel than coal, cheaper, and much easier directors of the Associated I >il Company, will always 

to handle. A process has now been invented by which be linked in the public mind with the romantic redis- 

covery and mammoth growth of the crude petroleum 
industry in California. Although Mr. Chanslor did 
not first discover oil in California as James Marshall 
first discovered gold, yet he was one of a group of 
men who has rendered a peculiar value to the industry 
in the discovery and extension of many new fields 
and helped to bring the production of California crude 
oil to its, present vast proportions. 

The assets of the Associated < HI Company as shown 
by the fifth annual statement of Mr. Scribner, secre- 
tary of the company, reach the large total of $52, 514,- 


The management of the Associated Oil Company 
presents the highest type of industrial direction com- 
prising the ownership of vast and productive natural 
resources and a thorough equipment to bring its 
products to the markets of the world. The company 
controls 54/148 acres of oil land, of which 27,523 acres 
is lease-hold, the remainder being owned in fee simple ; 
it has two hundred and twenty-seven oil wells which 
last year (1906) produced five and one-half million 
barrels of oil. But in addition the company is a vast 
purchaser and has bought up enough oil to cover all 
contracts for future delivery as well as existing sale 
contracts. One of the pipe lines runs from Coalinga 
to Monterey, at which point there are piers, wharves, 
and great tanks — a distance all told of 110 miles. 
The oil is kept moving in a constant stream in this 
pipe. The other pipe line runs from Santa Maria to 
Gaviota, a distance of some thirty-five miles. At 
Gaviota the company has a large refinery with a daily 
capacity of nine thousand barrels. A large fleet of 
vessels owned by the company take the oil which is 
piped to the ocean to all parts of the world. Among 
the steamers are the "W. S. Porter" and the "Rose- 
crans" ; then there are the ships "Marion Chilcott" 
and "halls of Clyde"; the schooners "Santiago." 
"Rhoderick Dim," and "Monterey." while there are 
several tugs including the great ocean-going tug 
"Navigator," and a number of barges. 

A strong figure in the multitudinous activities and 
progress of the Associated 1 HI Company is Mr. W. S. 
Porter, first vice-president and general manager. 
( if course, a position of this character would bespeak 
a man of exceptional executive ability. Mr. Porter 
not only possesses this trail to an unusual degree, but 
he is an able financier and a remarkably conservative, 

yet aggressive and far-seeing business man. I lis 
policy has done much to make the company one of 
the most powerful and useful corporations upon the 
Pacific Slope, employing many thousands of men. 
opening up new territory and creating a market for 
California petroleum. The company is in excellent 
condition. The depression in the price of oil that 

existeil in the past leu years has apparently vanished 
forever owing to the tremendously increased markets, 

The price, it should here he observed, has advanced 

both to the consumer and the producer. The Associ- 
ated I HI Company is constantlj increasing its purchase 
and development oi oil territory, ami is a large pur- 
chaser of oil. Its storage capacity of oil is enormous. 

Its steel tanks and oil reservoirs can at one time store 
four million barrels of oil. The company has now 
on hand in the field and in its distributing plants 
3,689,000 barrels, an increase of more than 2,000,000 
barrels over 1905. It owns eighteen distributing sta- 
tions in the Hawaiian Islands, California, Oregon and 
Washington, which supply an immense number of 
industries and furnish oil to the great steamers of the 
Pacific and the people of the Orient. Its quick assets 
amounted to almost $2,700,000. Between Januarv 1 
and February 19, 1907, the Associated < HI Company 
redeemed bills payable amounting to more than $475.- 
000. The high standing- and splendid condition of 
the company, the tremendous growth of the oil in- 
dustry render its future and its prosperity unquestion- 

The directors of the Associated (HI Company are: 
F. II. Buck, C. A. Canfield. W. I". Chanslor, J. A. 
Chanslor, E. C. Dumble, Burton E. Green, \V. !•'. 
Herrin, Wm. G. Kerchoff, W, S. Porter, < 1. Scribner, 
M. H. Whittier. The officers are: J. A. Chanslor, 
president: W. S. Porter, first vice-president and 
general manager; \V. F. Chandler, second vice-presi- 
dent; I'.. E. Green, treasurer; < >. Scribner. assistant 
general manager and secretary: W. A. Sloan, assistant 

The figures and statistics here given surely indicate 
the gigantic transactions and ownership of the Asso- 
ciated Oil Company. The names of the directors and 
officers are those of men actively identified with the 
rise and growth of the crude petroleum industry of 
California to its present stature. It is a pleasure in 
these davs when so main' of the great captains ol 
industry have come, often unjustly, under newspaper 
and public criticism as being manipulators and not 
producers of wealth, to record the well-known fact 
that the Associated (HI Company has been, and will 
continue to be, one of the mos( powerful influences 
for the welfare and prosperity of the Golden State 
Xo company has done more to help the State than the 
Associated (HI Company of California. 

Flood Apartments 
Southwest Corner Polk and Ellis Streets 



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Clunie Building 
Southwest Corner Montgomery and California Streets 

Joshua Hendy's New Building 

/.Win /(. / 1 11,11 d, En 

Sheldon Building 
Reinforced Concrete Construction 

Binj. i.~. McDoHtal, I 

Majestic Hotel 
1500 Sutter Street, S. F. 

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111 Jill lOKll 

New Mills Building 
Northeast Corner Bush and Montgomery Streets 

D, W. »•'., i i i 

Interior View of Main Postoffice 

Interior View of Main Postoffice 

Battleships Built in San Francisco 

WILL always be accounted to the 

glory of San Francisco that she built 

the famous battleship "Oregon," 

whose wonderful trip around the 

Horn in the early days of the Spanish 

War stands as the must amazing 

cruise ever made by a man-of-war. 

The wonderful "Oregon" is not California's only 

contribution to the sea defenders of the American flag. 

Among other great warships built in San Francisco 

are the armored cruiser, "California," the famous pro- 

Irun Works Company, of San Francisco. This com- 
pany has more than any cither concern endowed the 
Pacific Coast with the reputation of being a builder 
of fine ships. 

The Union fron Works is a credit to San Francisco 
in the eyes of the world. The company is enterpris- 
ing and is a generous employer of high-priced labor. 
Its amazing achievments in ship-building in the face 
of competition with Eastern plants where labor is 
much less and raw material is much less, and where 
facilities are more abundant, is a commentary upon 

U. S. Cruiser "Milwaukee" 

tected cruiser, "Olympia," whose guns fired by the the energ) and enterprise "f the managers of this 
invincible Dewej in Manila Bay on the first da) of concern, Vs one of the great and powerful shipbuild 
May, 1898, awoke a reverberation thai thundered ing institutions of the world, the Union iron Works 
round the world. Then there is the protected cruiser Company has dune much to bring San Francisco to a 

position of prominence among sea-going men, ship 
pers and commercial men ever) v, here. I he 1 iperations 

of this compan) are too vast, and its ace plishments 

too huge, to he mure than hinted at here. It is a 
matter of distinct pride, however, to 1 vi r) 1 alifornian 
to sn thai m his Siatr hav< been huih some "f 

"Milwaukee." the monitor "Monterey," the gunboat 
"Wheeling," torpedo-boat destroyer "Farragut," and 
a number of submarine 

The construction of battleships is the most intricate, 
the must expensive, the must responsible, and the 
must technical kind of shipbuilding, Ml the war 
ships mentioned here have been built 1 «> the Union the finest battleships that have evei cruised tin 

U. S. Gunboat "Wheeling" 

Japanese Cruiser "Chitose" 

Battleships Built by- 
Union Iron Works Co. 

U. S. S. "California" 

U. S. S. ( IREGI ).\. 

Length, P. P., 348 Ft.; length over all. 
351 ft. 2 in.; beam, \\ . L., 69 ft. 3 in.; draft, 
mean. 24 ft.; displacement, [0,288 tons; 
speed, trial, 16.79 knots; indicated horse- 
power, 11,037; bunker capacity, 1450 tons. 

Guns in turret, four [3 in. and eight 8 in. 
breech loading rifles; guns broadside, four 
6 in. rapid fire; secondary battery, twenty 
6 pounder, four 1 pounder rapid fire, one .1 
in. field, and four 30 Cal. A; torpedo tubes, 
three [8 in. 

Protected deck, forward, 3 in.; aft, 3 in.; 
ends, j ; 4 in. 

Armor: top, [8 in.; bottom, 8 in.; water 
line, [8 in.; 13-iii. turret, 15 in.; 8-in. turret, 
6 in.; [3-in. barbette, 17 in.; 8-in. barbette, 
8 and '1 in. 

T. S. S. C VLIFI IRN1 \. 

Length, P. P., 502 ft.; length over all, 503 
ft. 11 in.: beam, water line, 69 ft. <>'_ in.; 
draft, mean, -'4 ft. 1 in.; displacement, 
13,680 tons; speed, trial, 22 knots; indicated 
horse-power 23,000; bunker capacity, 2075 

(inns: in turrets, four 8 in. breech load- 
ing rifles; broadside, fourteen 6 in. rapid 
tire ; secondary battery, eighteen .1 in. rapid 
fire, twelve 3 pounder S. A., two 1 pounder 
rapid tire, two 3 in. field, four 30 Cal. A., 
two ,^o Cal. M. ; two (8 in. submerged tor- 
pedi ■ tubes. 

Protected deck. Forward, 4 in.; aft, 4 in.; 
ends, 1 j _• in. and 4 in. 

Armor: top, 6 in.; bottom. 5 in.; water 
line, 6 in. ; turret, 6yi in. and << in. : barbette, 
h in. 

U. S. S. ( >LYMP1 \. 

Length, P. P., 340 ft.; length over all, ,^44 
ft. 1 in. : beam, water line, 53 it. ' _> in. : draft, 
mean, 21 ft. i> in.; displacement, 5^65 tons; 
speed, trial. 21.69 knots; indicated horse- 
power, [7,080; bunker capacity. 1075 tons. 

(inns; in turret, four 8 in. breech loading 
rifles; broadside, ten 5 in. rapid fire; sec- 

ondary battery, fourteen 6 pounder and four 
i pounder rapid lire, one 30 Cal. A., one 30 
Cal. M.; >ix 18 in. torpedo tubes. 

Protected deck: Hat. 2 in.; slope, _p>4 in. 


Length, P. P., 424 Ft; length over all, 426 
ft. 6 in.: beam, water line, (1(1 ft.; draft, 
mean, jj ft. 6 in.; displacement, 0.700 tons; 
speed, trial, 22.22 knots; indicated horse- 
power, 24,100; hunker capacity, [650 tons. 

Guns: in turret, none; broadside, fourteen 
'1 in. rapid lire; secondary battery, eighteen 
3 in. rapid fire, twelve 12 pounder rapid fire, 
eight 1 pounder rapid fire, two 3 in. field, 
four 30 Cal. A., two 30 Cal. M. ; five torpedo 

Protected deck: Hat, 2 in.; slope. 3 in. 

Side armor, 4 in. 


U. S. Battleship "Oregon" 

Length, I'. I'.. 256 ft.: length over all. 260 

ft. 11 in.; beam, water line, 51; ft. '2 in.; 
draft, mean, 14 ft. 10 in.; displacement, 
4,084 tons; speed, trial. 13.6 knots: indicated 
horse-power, 5.104; bunker capacity, 20:1 
t< ins. 

Guns: in turret, two 12 in. and two 10 in. 
breech loading rifies ; broadside, none ; sec- 
ondary battery, six 6 pounder and four 1 
pounder rapid fire, two 6 m/m. A. 

Protected deck: Hat. 2'_. in. 

Armor: top, 13 in.; bottom. 5 in; water 
line, 13 in.; 12-in. turret, 8 in.; 12-in. bar- 
bette. 13 in.; 10-in. barbette. 1 1 ' _. in. 


Length, P. P., 174 ft.: length over all, 
189 ft. 7 in.; beam, water line, 34 ft.; draft, 
mean. 12 ft.; displacement, 990 tons; speed, 
trial, 12.88 knots; indicated horse-power. 
101.3; bunker capacity, 230 tons. 

(inns: broadside, six 4 in. rapid fire; sec- 
ondary battery, four 6 pounder and two 1 

pounder rapid fire, one 30 Cal. A. 

Length, I'. I'.. 213 ft. o in.; beam, water 
line. 20 ft. 8 in.; draft, mean, <p ft.; dis- 
placement, 27c) Ions; speed, trial, 30.13 
knots; indicated horse power, 5.878; bunker 
capacity. 05 Ions. 

Guns, four o pounder rapid lire. 

Torpedi 1 1 ubes, 1 wi > 18 in. 


Length, P. P., 58 Ft, '■ in. ; length over all, 

63 Ft. 1 in. ; beam, water line, 11 ft. 11 in. 

U. S. Torpedo Boat Destroyer "Farragut" 

U. S. Coast Defense Vessel "Monterey" 

U. S. Submarine "Pike" 

California's Wonderful Floating 
Gold Mines 

i!\ Hamilton Wright 

N THE stirring days of the gold rush Though these deposits do not exist in the beds of 

in California following that momen- streams, yet they hear a marked likeness to the placer 

tons December 24th, [848, when gold. They are found in the vast interior valleys of 

fames .Marshall discovered gold on California where the earth of t ho mountains for 

the north fork of the Feather River, countless centuries lias been washed down to form 

almost all the gold of California was the beds of valleys. Todaj the gold dredgers of 

taken from the beds of streams. California are contributing in a wonderful degree to 

Within two score of years, however, the richest pick- the yearly gold output of the Slate. In Oroville 

illg'S of these wonderful finds have been exhausted. thousands and thousands of acres of orchard and 

and men left the placers for the gold mines whose valley laud are being treated by these dredgers for 

enormous wealth still contributes to swell the huge gold. So remarkable has been the development of the 

.i 1 4-Foot Steam Risdon Gold Dredge 

.1 uni of moiH-N thai had been \ielded from the gold dredger in California that todaj this State is 

placers. Up to dale California has contributed more looked upon as the most advanced in the development 

than fourteen bundled million dollars 1.1 the world's of that particular kind of machinery, lor years men 

gold supply, and the vast Fortunes that have been thus continued to pan and sluice gravels in a crude wa\ 

made have dour not a little toward the building up of until the modern mining dredger, the most complex, 

San Francisco. the most scientific, and the mosl human machine in 

Latterly, however, the mining of placer gold has all the world made its advent, to the astoni 

taken on a wonderful impetus through the introduction miners everywhere lod.n California stands at the 

of the Australian gold dredging system into California, head of the gold dredging countries, and miners from 

l'.\ means of floating gold dredgers which are. as it the most remote sections of the globe come here to 

wen. huge floating mines that but low their wa\ obtain tin- latest particulars regarding the develop 

through the earth digging then own canal, vast beds merit of the machine 
of gravel bearing gold values are being reclaimed. Perhaps tin fin< 1 gold dredgers known, certainlj 

the most efficient, are those dredgers built by the 
Risdon Iron Works, of San Francisco. More than 
ten years ago, when gold dredging was almost in its 
infancy in California, the Risdon Iron Works secured 
the services of Mr. R. II. Postlethwaite, who was at 
that time one of the most expert scientific dredgers, 
and had also great practical experience in New Zealand. 
Air. Postlethwaite straightway introduced the latest 
methods from New Zealand, and as well constantly 
made many inventions and patents incorporated in 
the modern Risdon dredger. The Risdon gold 
dredgers are the strongest known, and. while more 
expensive than some other kinds of dredgers, are also 
more endurable. Their essential parts are made of 

The gold dredger, marvelously enough, is the only 
kind of a boat which makes its own channel as it goes. 
It is not necessary to have a stream to operate one of 
these dredgers, as wherever enough water can be 
turned into an enclosure, say 100 feet square, the 
dredger will start and make its own channel as it goes 
along. A small stream will suffice to provide it with 
the necessary water to fill its channel and to treat its 
gravels. There is no more amazing sight than these 
huge dredgers in California which burrow their way 
through millions and millions of cubic yards of gold- 
bearing earth. 

No concern has done more to build up California 
than the Risdon Iron Works. This huge concern em- 

Risdon 3;' 4 -Foot Gold Dredge 

the finest quality of cast steel. Today dredgers made 
by this company are in operation in West Africa, the 
Philippine Islands, Idaho, Oroville, California, Fair 
Oaks. California, and many other places of Northern 
California, as well as in the Klondyke, etc. Each 
dredger is made particularly to meet conditions of the 
country in which it is to be worked. One of their 
steam dredgers now operating on Bonanza Creek, in 
the Klondyke, above Dawson, which cost about $30.- 
000, has up to this time returned a profit of $500,000 
in gold ; and, although far removed from the machine 
shops where repairs can be made, it has been almost 
continuously in operation. 

The Risdon gold dredgers are made to be operated 
either l>\ steam or electric, and many of the miners 
are using the power of mountain streams which is 
converted into electric energv to drive their dredgers. 

ploys skilled engineers of world-wide reputation and 
has evolved the most lasting and valuable mining 
machinery known, its extensive constructions in- 
volving all kinds of milling machinery, steamboats, 
etc., giving employment to thousands of skilled work- 
men in the city of San Francisco. It has often been 
said that California was too far removed from the seat 
of the production of iron ores to enable her to com- 
pete with the manufacture of machinery in a large 
way with the great factories of the East, but this, 
however, has been successfully disproved by the Ris- 
don Iron Works and other concerns which, by manu- 
facturing a high type of machinery have not only 
given employment to thousands of men, but through 
their mechanical ingenuity have created new industries 
in California. 

From Baltimore to San Francisco 

Rapid Construction of the First Ocean to Ocean Railway 

VERYONE knows of the Western 
Pacific Railroad Company which is 
destined to complete a continuous 
trascontinental railway system from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific; from the 
harbor of Baltimore to the harbor 
of San Francisco. The work will, 
when finished, mark the consummation of the dream 
of pioneers of the past four generations; it will mark 
the first single transcontinental railway system; in 
some respects it will be a more remarkable achievement 
than the trans-Siberian railway, the Northern Pacific 
or the Great Northern. The importance of this road 
to San Francisco, the Pacific (.'oast, and indeed to 
the whole West is generally realized. For besides 
increasing the traffic facilities of the Pacific Coast, 
which have come to bear demands almost too great, 
owing to the amazing industrial development of the 
West, the new line will open up a number of little- 
known and almost unsettled districts, some of which 
are of great agricultural wealth while others are very 
rich in mineral or timber resources. Besides this the 
line will offer transportation facilities and a ready 
market to numerous thickly populated ami very pro- 
ductive regions. 

few San Francisco people have any idea of how 
rapidly this wink which will add so materially to the 
already great prosperity of San Francisco, has already 
progressed, or of the route which the road is taking. 
Indeed, knowledge of the latter point is almost exclu- 
sively confined to railroad circles, while the pleasing 
facts of progress in the actual construction are but 
little known save by those fortunate pioneers who live 
along the line of the road and by the engineers and 
construction forces of the Western Pacific. 

Tin Western Pacific Railroad, of course, is only 
that portion of the Gould system which is now being 
built between Salt Pake City and Oakland, California. 
Mr. Gould and his associates already control a con 
tinuous track from Salt Pake to Baltimore. For, 
according to press reports I later corroborated I of 
more than two years ago Mr. Gould then bought the 
tcrmin; 1 facilities and trackage of a line into the 
I. iller citj . 

The total length of the Western Pacific from the 
Rio Grande Western Station in Salt lake t it) to the 
face of the Ferry Building in San Francisco will he 

i)_»i) miles. The unusual engineering feat in regard to 

this trackage is that nowhere will there he a grade of 

more than one per cent, that is. the train will nevet 
climb more than 52.8 feel in the distance of a mile. 
It sec ins almost incredible that the steep Sierra, sin ml. I 

he crossed with so lighl a grade, and the fact thai 

this is being done indicates the increased traffic to or 
through San Francisco from the great West to the 

Of these interesting o_><) miles between Salt Pake 
City and San Francisco 122 miles are in Utah; 427 
are in Nevada and 380 miles are in California. Before 
Christmas of [906, ioo miles of the line in Utah had 
been laid and construction trains were in operation; 
the contracts for the remainder of the line bad been 
let as well as for the terminals that had been pur- 
chased in Salt Pake City. In Nevada the building of 
the entire 427 miles of track is under contract and 
work has long commenced, while in California the con- 
struction of the 380 miles of track has been under 
contract for more than a year and a half. A great 
deal of grading is completed and much of the track is 
laid. Thousands of men are now at work complet- 
ing the laying of the tracks. In California especially 
the new line will open up some wonderful country. 
In Plumas County, where the line enters California 
over Beckwith Pass, there are fat valleys where the 
soil is rich and black as Canaan. Thousands and 
thousands of acres of as fertile land as any under the 
sun have newer known the plow because the region 

Tunnel Under Course of Construction 

has lacked adequate transportation facilities; a wealth 
of ore that a Midas might envy lies undeveloped for 
the need of economic milling facilities, while vast 
forests of pine have come to maturity and passed to 
decaj without thrilling to the woodman's axe. After 
the road enters California over Beckwith Pass, alti 
tude 51111) feet, it follows various forks of the Feathei 
River debouching into the vast and fertile- Sacra- 
mento Valley at Oroville. Here is population! And, 
too, here is industry. The line will run across the 
Sacramento Valley to Marysville and down to Sacra- 
mento and then to Stockton, where eighteen miles of 
another line have been acquired in addition to terminal 
facilities. Thence the Western Pacific, which will be 
the first transcontinental system, will run i" ( lakland 
via Livermore, Niles and Fruitvale. \t Oakland the 
Gould system lias expended several millions of dollars 
in the purchase of terminal facilities. Already new 
factories are going 11)1 in anticipation of the new line 
all along its route. Bright new roofs shine ever) 
where, (ireat smoke-stacks belch forth their blackish 
clouds; the place looks like a beehive. We live in 
l-'ruilvalc and have had occasion In notice every morn- 
ing between 7:29 and 7:42 a. m. the really surprising 
changes that tin coming of the new line has already 

In connection with the extremel) low grade before 
mentioned, attention should lie called to the tunnels 
mi tile new mad. All and all there are fifty-nine tun- 
nels ..11 the line. The tunnels alone aggregate more 
than ten miles; their exaet length being 52,593 feet. 
The longest is the spring garden tunnsi — length 7-^4 
feet — between the North Fork and the middle Fork 
of heather River in Plumas County. The next is 
Beckwith tunnel on the summit of the Sierras 5989 feet 
above sea level; the third is in Nevada, altitude 5650 
feet, and the fourth is the Xiles tunnel in California 
1 1 1 1. 1 feet. In line with the central idea for tile 
economic handling of freight the new line will have no 
extreme curves and hut few of them, considering the 
several mountain systems through which it passes. 
From Oakland to Oroville the line passes through 
cultivated bottom land and foot-hills. From Oroville 
to Beckwith and Honey Lake the line is altogether in 
the mountains and passes through a splendid timber 
region. This will he the scenic portion of the road, 
and the scenery along the mute will surpass that of 
any transcontinental mad. In Plumas and Lassen 
counties there are also fine mineral regions, principally 
gold and copper. From Honey Lake to Silver Zone 
Pass the line passes through an open desert country, 
but on the northern sides of it there are fine mineral 
deposits. The copper districts of Northern Nevada 
hid fair to become famous. In the vicinity of Silver 
/niie Pass, and from there southward along the Utah- 
Nevada line, there are line deposits of silver, copper 
and lead. I hi the Mud Desert there is one of the 
largest deposits of salt which is known in the West. 

The completion of the Western Pacific Railroad will 
undeniabl) give greater impulse to the commerce of 
California than it has received since the opening of the 
first transcontinental system. 

Mmost the entire portion of the system embraced 
between Salt Lake City and Utah will develop either 
highlj valuable agricultural lands or else will open up 
richly mineralized regions. After leaving Salt Lake 
City the line passes around the southern end of I .real 
Salt Lake and the north end of the Stansburj Range; 
thence crossing Low I 'ass. in the Cedar Range, strikes 
the (ireat Mud Desert, across which it runs for thirtv- 
eight miles. It then climbs the rim of Salt Lake 
Basin, crossing it at Silver Zone I 'ass, at an elevation 
of 5,875 feel. The line then descends in the Gosinte 
Valley, in the bottom of which it crosses the Nevada 

Northern Railroad. It then crosses the Pequop 
Range, crossing it at Flower Lake I 'ass, at an eleva- 
tion of 5,907 feet. From the time the line leaves ( ireat 
Mud Desert until it winds into the Sacramento Val- 
ley, in California, it is almost constantly in mining 
country. The new mines |ust lately discovered in the 
north of Nevada seem to promise to make the districts 
there as famous almost as T. niopah and I ioldfield. The 
moment the line reaches the boundary of California 
it will touch a wonderfully fertile hut almost unknown 
region, the great Honey Lake Basin of Lassen 
County. Here are hundreds of thousands of acres of 
fertile land that await the coming of the settler. The 
region i- now hut scarcely inhabited, though the few 
farmers in the district arc taking out amazing crops. 
Heavy alfalfa crops are gathered from three to six 
times a year. The fruit and vegetables raised are of 
the very finest character. The climate is more like 
that of the Eastern States than that of California, 
though the winters are mild and open. 

Cut Through Solid Rock 

Whittell Building 

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New Olympic Club Building 

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Portuguese-American Bank Building 

Muesdorfer, . In fertci [ 

Drawing for Apartment House 




Tea Garden Building Clinton Day. Architect 

City of Paris Dry Goods Company 


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Map of San Francisco 
Shows Burnham's Plans of Beautifying the City 

New Emporium Building 
Now in Course of Construction 


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Zellerbach Building 
S.E. Corner Battery and Jackson Streets 

■ / .' I jri" *' ; 


View Showing Rapid Reconstruction of Class A Buildings 


AN FRANCISO >. bruised and scarred, 
is still pre-eminently Queen of the 
Pacific. She sits at the gatewaj of 
the- sea and gathers toll from all the 
passing ships, [nto her coffers flows 
the wealth from the valley, forest ati<l 
mine. Linked by hands of steel and 
fleet-winged ships to the Orient and all the western 
world, sin- is greal even in misfortune. San Francisco, 
alone on her rocky peninsula, dependent upon her own 
resources would be hut a coaling station and point 
of departure. Alone she would shrink to a fishing 
village with a Cliff House annex. But hack of San 
Francisco is California, most wonderful and resource- 
ful of all the sisterhood of States. On the mainland 
shores north ami east, railway and ferry lines bring 
San Francisco in actual touch with all the activity 
and industry which make her great. San Francisco 
is great because a population greater than that which 
dwells within her holders is in daily touch with all 
her activities, and is hound up in her social, industrial 
and commercial lite. Stop the ferries for ten days 
and her industries would languish and her commercial 
interests he paralyzed. This vast moving population, 
whose business interests are in San Francisco hut 
whose homes are on the flower-decked hills of the 
northern and eastern shores, must be within frequent 
and easy touch of their houses and business. 

Ferry lines have been in operation for many years, 
all carrying mixed cargoes of freight, passengers and 
express. Some Oakland gentlemen, strong in the 
faith that the public appreciates and will patronize a 
good service, conceived the idea 'if a ferry and train 
service which should he first class in all its appoint- 
ments. Instead oi smoky, noisy engines, brilliantly 
lighted electric trains; instead of slow-moving side- 
wheel ferry-boats, swift-moving screw-propelled boats, 
clean and neat from main deck to pilot house: instead 
of combination freight, express and passenger service, 
they conceived a service in which the comfort, pleas- 
ure and safety of the passenger is the first considera- 
tion. Based on these ideas the Key Route came into 
existence. The croaker said "there's no room for an- 
other ferry." The kicker said "I won't ride if I can't 
take my dog and automobile." The doubter said "you 
can't run trains by electricity." etc. All these cheerful 

apostles of gloom, doubt and discontent kept their 
hammers going and wailed to see the word "failure" 
spelt in large letters. Time- has silenced the croaker 
and justified the wisdom and courage of the builders. 
From the first day of operation the Key Route has been 
an unqualified success. The public responded loyally 
with their patronage, which is constantly increas- 
ing. The Key Route has the unique distinction 
of being the first railway or ferry company to 
operate boats especially fitted for passenger service 
and free from trucks, baggage or freight of any 

It was also the first to inaugurate a twenty-minute 
schedule between Oakland anil San Francisco. The 
first and only railway to operate ten and twelve-car 
trains by means of the overhead trolley. It has been 
anil is a most important factor in the development 
of Oakland and Berkeley. The time schedule was 
reduced 30 per cent, the frequency of the service in- 
creased 50 per cent. Following this lead the other 
ferries increased their speed, shortened train schedules 
and increased their service. It is not too much to say 
that the Key Route has been the most important 
development in the last quarter of a century in the 
histor) of « lakland and Berkeley and indirectly ill the 
development of San Francisco. It now has four of 
the fleetest passenger boats on the bay, and a fifth is 
now building at the Union Iron Works. Three lines, 
each having a twenty-minute train service, are now in 
operation to Berkeley and Oakland, a fourth to the 
Claremont district is nearly completed, and a fifth to 
North Berkeley is under way. The constantly increas- 
ing travel and marvelous growth of population indicate 
that the time is not far distant when the present 
twenty-minute service will be replaced with a ten- 
minute service. And to this end the Key Route is 
making preparation. 

The officers of the San Francisco, I >akland and San 
|ose Railway are composed of the following well- 
known men: F. M. Smith, director; E. A. Herrin. 
president; Henry Wadsworth, vice-president: \Y. F. 
Kelley, second vice-president and general manager; 
Samuel J. Taylor, secretary : F. W. Frost, assistant 
secretary; F. C. Havens, treasurer: J. P. Potter, gen- 
eral superintendent; 1 Q. Brown, assistant general 

Key Route Waiting Room 

Key Route Terminus 

Type of Key Route Stations 

Key Route Ferry Boat "San Francisco" 

Key Route Mole 

Train of Key Route Cars 

— ' ^— -^ 

i Olympic Club. Eddy street near Octavia 
J. Union League Club. 

Bo emian Club, 
i Cosmos Club 

San Francisco is well supplied with clubs of all kinds. Many 
of these availed themselves of residences, as headquarters, after 
the fire, and quite a number have adopted these as pern 

1 s Still others aii rebuilding massive structures in the 

dovi w n section, and as soon as these buildings are completed. 

will remove, so as to bi nearei the center of activity. Club life 
in San Francisco is one of the mosl agreeable features of tins 
grea i mel i opolis. 

1. Trinity Church 

2. <'.i\ alrj Prei byti i Ian Church F lllmoi e and i . : ■ ■ troel 
: Synagogue Sherlth Israel, California ond Wob ■■ ■ 


i Fefl Ish i' 'i i : . treel 

6 p| ■ « " ■ i ■ el near Bui I 

G I'm t i:.i|.i, i CI O'Fan Flllmon 

tnd u ■ <■ Lei 

i . < "ii.-iin •■' i *akes. i 'i .ii i 

;: pun).; i ■ Children's 1 'la yground 

i. Lilies and p 


in middle distance 

5, The Conservatory. Gift ol Mtervyn Donohue and others. 

6. Rustic bridge and shady walk. 

:. 'j he Wine eress. a bronz* over! i 'i Valley. 

S. Rustic bridge, Chain & Lakes. 

Railroad Transportation 

IE Southern Pacific Railway System 
and its powerful connection, the- 
Union Pacific, own and direct four- 
teen thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-five miles of roadbed and have 
an outstanding capitalization uf a 
billion dollars. Their gross earn- 
ings for the year nineteen hundred and six, 
amounted to more than an hundred and fifty mil- 
lions of dollars. ( )f this amount the Southern Pa- 
cific and its subsidiary lines, aggregating in track- 
age nine thousand two hundred and sixty-seven 
miles, and capitalized at half of a billion, earned 
nearly one hundred millions of dollars, and estab- 
lished its supremacy as the leading transcontinental 
road terminating in San Francisco. Since the great 
fire, although the facilities of the company have 
been overtaxed, it has transacted this increased 
volume of business with the greatest dispatch, con- 
sistent with the frequent unavailable congestion of 
freight, and has forcefully contributed to the rapid 
rehabilitation of the city. Owing to it ^ dividend 
earning power, the Southern Pacific has grown to 
be, so far as California interests are concerned, the 
most valuable of the great properties whose affairs 
are chiefly directed by E. II. Ilarriman. With the 
development of the Ilarriman system of roads the 
Southern Pacific Company has retained its indi- 
viduality as a Californian enterprise and was the 
rock upon which the great railway magnate founded 
his intricate ami extensive holdings. The South- 
ern Pacific Company was incorporated in eighteen 
hundred and eighty-four, thus bringing together, 
under one management, the Sunset Route, and the 
Central Pacific which combination was subsequently 
merged into tin- Union Pacific. To this tremendous 
organization have been added, through the genius 
of Ilarriman. such properties as the Illinois ('cntral, 
the Chicago and Alton, the Baltimore and Ohio, 
the Reading and the Central, of New Jersey. These 
Eastern connections have given the Southern Pa- 
cific Company the closest friendly relations with the 
Atlantic seaboard, thus enabling it to make an ad- 
vantageous union with the Illinois t cut nil and other 
Southern lines at New Orleans. The Morgan line 
of steamers plying between the Crescent City, Gal- 
veston and New York, which is owned by the Ilarri- 
man interests is one of the company's valuable 
allies and marine connections. The develop- 
ment of the Stale of California and its 

metropolis has been and is due to the Southern 

Pacific. Its growth and financial power commenced 

and keeps pace with the expansion of San FranclSCO 

and the exploitation of the State's resources. Its 
phenomenal success as a great public carrier de- 
voted primarily to the best interests of the State has 
invited competition, with the result that San Fran- 
cisco is not only the actual terminal of three trans- 
continental roads completed and under way, but that 
every great line in the country is struggling to attain 
the same end. 

Animated by the same spirit of progressiveness 
which has practically revolutionized the city, the 
Southern Pacific is engaged in the construction of 
additional means to transport its commerce. It 
has secured large tracts of land adjacent to the 
terminal of the Santa Fe and the Western Pacific in 
the heart of the city's great lumber market and to 
relieve congestion, divide its traffic and shorten de- 
livery, it is about to bridge, under Federal super- 
vision. San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton. Under 
the same authority it is dredging the bay prepara- 
tory to widening its great mole at Oakland and has 
secured larger space along the latter's shore line 
for trackage. Continuing its policy of trade de- 
velopment it has recently purchased of John IJ. 
Spreckels the Coss Bay' and Coquille River Rail- 
way which taps, to the north, a region rich in coal 
and other mineral. It will share with the Santa be 
the advantages arising from their purchase, and 
joint control, of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. 
a company incorporated s,, [ate as the last day of 
[906. This road, formerly known as the California 
Northwestern, will be extended from Willits 
through Humboldt Count) to I 'epperwood, the termi- 
nus of a line projected, from Eureka on Humboldt 
Bay southward, by the Santa Fe, The Northwest- 
ern by its absorption of minor roads will control the 
rail shipments of that section of northern California 

contiguous to the sea and pierce the most abundant 
redwood lumber district in the world. It will also 
transport the dairy products and agricultural com- 
merce of one of the richest counties in the State 
hitherto dependent upon the shipping to this city. 

Closely identified with the Southern Pacific will 
be, when completed, the San Pedro, I OS Migclcs 
and Salt Lake road, the most active and prominent 

director of which is \V, I'.. ( ornish, vice-president 
of the I nion Pacific, The Pacific Mail and the 1 Iri 
■ 111 . 1 1 and 1 iccidental Steamship Companies, owned 
b\ the Southern Pacific ( ompanj will doubtless 

control the ocean traffic of Senator Clark's line, and 
material!) broaden the marine business of S.111 Fran 
Cisco, M Salt Lake, the Western Pacific will con 

in .1 with the Denver and Rio Grande thus affording 

the Gould s\siein its much desired road From the 

Atlantic to the Pacific. The perfection of this mad 
was the work of President E. T. Jeffery, of the 
Denver and Rio Grande which was responsible for 
the withdrawal of the Gould interests from the Union 
Pacific. The road is being rapidly constructed. 
After traversing Utah and crossing the Nevada line, 
one hundred and seventy-four miles distant from 
California, it will ascend the Sierras to Beckwith 
Pass and thence to < Iroville. From that point to the 
city it will become an active rival of the Southern 
Pacific for local traffic. From its mole at the Oak- 
land estuary the Western Pacific will dispatch its 
ferry boats to its grand terminal consisting of one 
hundred and twenty-five acres in the Potrero dis- 
trict of San Francisco and will establish a modern 
passenger station, in keeping with the liberal man- 
agement of the Gould mads at llrannan and Ninth 
Streets in the Mission. The Mission will be further 
improved by the handsome passenger depot facilities 
of the Ocean Shore double-tracked electric railway 
running between San Francisco and Santa Cruz. 
Property in the Mission will be further enhanced by 
the erection of several commodious hotels for the 
comfort and convenience of railway travelers. 

The conversion of China Basin into a site for the 
San Francisco terminal of the Santa Fe railway 
will make South San Francisco one of the busiest 
and most attractive railway scenes in the country. 
In it will be grouped the terminals of the three 
transcontinental lines ami the licit railway together 
with lumber docks, freight shells and other views 
of shipping and railroad activity. The work of suc- 
cessfully utilizing China Basin as a field for its 
operations has been accomplished by the Santa he- 
at a tremendous cost and will be oi general value 
to the merchants of the city. At Point Richmond. 
on the opposite shore of the bay, the company has 
made extensive improvements around which have 
grown a prosperous town. From that place freight 
and passengers are now transferred to San Fran- 
cisco by lines of swift and elegant ferries. 

'I he completion of the Tehauntopec National 
Railroad from Costzacoalcos, on the Gulf of .Mexico, 
to Salinas Cruz on the Pacific, will greatly augment 
the commerce of the metropolis and. until, the 
Panama Canal is dug and opened to shipping will 
divide traffic with the Panama Railway. The road 
will lie directly connected with San Francisco by 
the steamers of the American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Company, plying between this city and Honolulu, 
and will be effective in developing the sugar in- 
dustry. The harbor at Salinas Cruz has been 
dredged to a depth of twenty-nine feet which will 
freely admit carriers of heavy tonnage, several of 
which have been constructed in San Francisco. 

With their marine investments the railroads cen- 
tering in San Francisco are interested in coloniza- 
tion schemes, in the use and production of oil. in 
mines and agriculture. The Southern Pacific is 

building and will operate its own refrigerator ears 
for the preservation of fruit in transit to Eastern 
markets. To embellish the city it will erect a mag- 
nificent office building on the site of the "Russ 
I louse" on Montgomery Street, the larger part of 
which will be given up to the transaction of both 
its freight and passenger business. It owns and 
manages summer and winter resorts of international 
fame, and is among the most powerful factors in 
the commercial and industrial life of the city. 

The local passenger traffic of the railways of San 
Francisco is enormous. Their service, ferry equip- 
ment, sjieed and safety, have developed suburban 
towns and villages and immensely contributed to 

E. H. Harriman 

the retail trade of the city. They have united San 
Francisco in the closest business and social bonds 
to more than a quarter of a million people residing 
in the cities of ( Jakland, Berkeley and Alameda, on the 
east shore of the bay, and are a daily necessity and 
luxury to residents of San Jose and the State 
capital. They convey the products of farm and 
gardens to markets famous for their fruits and vege- 
tables supplementing the cargoes of schooners, fish- 
ing smacks ami the steamers of creeks and rivers. 
They are pliable utilities, conforming to the ma- 
terial needs of a great city and contributing to its 
lighter pleasures. 

Two of the City's Most Astute and Progressive Landlords 

*** ^ 

j i^H 

k -** v H 


'*y 1 lev 

■ • »5 

p id! p 

^^1 ^^^ i »fQBf 

d • *SPM 

• v-'v^hH 

Alphonzo Benjamin Bowers 

PhoU by Smith rxfr/ut, ftT this U'trt 

HERE is no equivalent in the English 

language for the wind "genius," no 
synonym, no phrase, no sentence so 
pregnant of meaning and so full of 
importance. It denotes a character 
of transcendent and isolated mental 
equipment, linked to equally resourceful powers of ac- 
complishment. It mean-- a personality unique and con- 
spicuous in an environment of its own making, and 
therefore real geniuses arc scarce. California has 
Burbank and Bowers, the first an apostle and origina- 
tor of beauty of color and odor and form, the propa- 
gator and transformer of vegetable organisms ; the 
second an inventor who revolutionizes old methods, 
creates new industries to enrich the world, and who 
utilizes the functions of his mind and body in a be- 
wildering number of useful activities. Such is Bowers, 
and he, as well as Burbank, is a genius. 

The world may admire a dreamer ; its respectful and 
lasting admiration is given only to the individual who 
adds something of thought or deed to its storehouse 
of treasures. A. B. Bowers has accomplished a re- 
markable amount of useful work. He has the mind of 
the inventor and experimental philosopher who passes 
successfully from one field of mental exploration only 
to eagerly enter another; he has builded books and 
maps and material public works; he has been an in- 
structor in the public and higher schools of the Slate. 
as well as a student in schools of art and science and 
law ; he is a distinguished private citizen who has been 
a useful public official. An old friend says of him: 
"It seems to be a condition of his mind that it impels 
him to continual effort. He usually had some article 
under way for either Californian, Eastern, or Euro- 
pean journals, on engineering, political economy, so- 
ciology, religion, poetry, hydraulic dredging, or other 
topics of the day. The study of law always had an 
attraction for his analytical mind. Long before he 
became a victim of 'the law's delays' be had attacked 
that study with the fierce energy that formed a pail 
of hi- menial equipment, lie read a whole library of 
authorities and was well grounded in the fundamental 
principles of law. Dissatisfied with the specifications 

and claims of bis first attorneys, he was compelled In 
prepare and prosecute liis own applications for patents. 
This necessitated (he study of patent law, and into Ibis 
wilderness be plunged as il il were a garden of roses." 
I lis marvelous versatility has matured many lines 
of useful endeavor and rounded out and annexed to 
his individualitj a group of striking, useful and grace 

ful accomplishments, Mr, Bowers is no) merely a 
distinguished inventor; he is a civil, mechanical, and 

hydraulic engineer; a surveyor, topographer, clever 
photographer, and an excellent draughtsman; he is 
an extensive traveler, with a retentive memory of 
places and facts; an architect and builder, who has 
designed and erected both public and private edifices; 
a miner and a litterateur, who adds to his mental re- 
sources the ability of an interesting and witty writer, 
lecturer, debater and public speaker, though of late 
years he has found little lime for such pursuits. "He 
bad taught his first school, written his firsl newspaper 
article, delivered several lectures, made half a dozen 
political speeches, and built his first dam at the age 
of sixteen." 

He vitalizes every undertaking he has originated 
or in which he has been engaged. lie has the mental 
graces of a poet, which are sometimes found acting 
conjointly with the intellectual functions of the in- 
ventor, and has written graceful verse, though his 
best literary work has been in prose. Me has attained 
celebrity in fraternal circles, and was one of the 
founders of the Technical Society of the Pacific Coast 
and of the California Association of Civil Engineers. 
He is a Mason of the Thirty-third or highest degree: 
a Past Chancellor Commander of the Knights of 
Pythias; a member of Columbia Commandery, No. ->. 
Knights Templar, and a charter member of Almas 
Temple. Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, of Washington, 
D. C. He also belongs to many other organizations, 
social, scientific, literary, and fraternal, lie is presi- 
dent and vice-president of several large dredging com- 
panies here and in the East; president of a coal mine 
in Wyoming, and of water and electric light works, 
and of other business enterprises in California; is 

interested in gold and silver mines in California, 

Nevada, and Mexco; was Deputy Surveyor-General, 

and as such rectified and established several disputed 
county boundaries in [864, and bad charge of (he sales 
of Stale lands-- swamp, overflowed, tide, and school — 
from [863 to [867. lie is versed in common, patent, 
international and other branches of law: has often 
acted as his own attorney in winking up bis cases, 
examining witnesses, taking depositions, preparing 
and prosecuting his applications for patents, writing 
assignments, licenses, contracts, agreements, etc. 

Me has invented many scientific and mechanical de- 
vices other than those for which he obtained patents, 
lull his reputation as one of the niosi noted inventors 
in the world rests chiefly upon bis invention in [864 
of the Art of hydraulic dredging and of the moi 
hydraulic dredge, with ii~ rotarj exca> 1 1 iblj 

connected floating discharge pipe, and continuous \^c:\ 
01 cut while swinging sidewise in the arc ol a circle 

on a fixed pivot or center of oscillation carried by the 
dredge itself. He was not only the inventor, but also 
tlic builder of the first hydraulic dredge ever con- 
structed capable of severing hard material from the 
bottom of waterways, raising the same by atmospheric 
pressure and transporting ii by means of a centrifugal 
pump through a long pipe to a distant place of de- 
posit "ti land or in water; and is noted the world over 
for liis stubborn, long-continued and finally successful 
fight, in more than fifty -nits, for his patent rights 
and recognition of his claim to be the first or pioneer 
inventor of the Art of hydraulic dredging and of the 
hydraulic dredge a contest commenced in ill-health, 
when he was without occupation, income, assets or 
credit, with $100,000 indebtedness, and fought under 
almost insuperable difficulties against combined and 
practically unlimited capital, the highest legal talent, 
and at the cost of a quarter of a million dollars. 

Thirty years ago Mr. Bowers was considered a 
crank. Todaj his genius is recognized throughout 
the civilized world. He stands in the trout rank of 
inventors. Mis dredge represents the labor of nearly 
a lifetime. It is unquestionably the best, has the 
greatest capacity, is the most efficient, most economical 
dredge and system of dredging and filling in the 
world. It has delivered at the end of a long discharge 
pipe chunks of clay weighing 300 pounds; shale and 
stones weighing 200 pounds — as hard material as is 
handled by any dredge, and has made feasible count- 
less important public and private enterprises that 
would otherwise he impossible. It has constructed 
canals, filled up and fertilized swamps and salt 
marshes: reclaimed overflowed lands from the sea 
and planted public parks and prosperous towns there- 
on ; made harmless and valuable many malarial wastes 
in the vicinities of large cities, and improved their 
sanitary conditions to the great saving of human life. 
It has saved to the government of the United 
States many million dollars and will continue to 
save it main millions more. It has created prop- 
erty to the value of many hundred millions, and 
will continue to create property values incalculable 
and almost incredible, not only in this country hut 
throughout the world, and for a long time to come. It 
has done more for the commerce, manufactures, and 
trade of 1 lakland than any other one thing — almost 
as much, perhaps, as all other- combined. It has 
created its harbor and valuable water front, trans- 
forming them from marsh land and a shallow, worth- 
less estuary, that ran bare with the outgoing tide, into 
immensely valuable business properties and one of 
the best harbors on the Pacific Coast. But for this 

inventor and invention, Oakland would never have 

become a maritime City. lie has repeatedly been re- 
ferred to in public journals as "a man whom I lakland 
should revere," but this is equally true of many other 
towns and cities. Mis inventions will he of perhaps 

even greater value to San Francisco than it has been 

to ( lakland, in the contemplated extension of its water- 
front ami the reclamation for business purposes of ji> 

large areas of salt marsh and tide land- 
Mr. Bowers is a staunch and steadfast friend, a 
popular clubman, enjoying membership in the Cosmos 
1 where he resides when in this city), ami other clubs, 
and is not unknown in society, though of late year- 
he has devoted to this but little of hi- time. Me i- 
a member of the Geographical Society, and with In- 
artistic tastes, natural!) a member of the Association 
for the Adornment of the City, a- well as a patron 
and contributor to many charitable institutions and 
objects. Me was a member and participated in the 
transactions and discussions of the International Con- 
gress of Commerce ami Navigation at Brussels, in 
[898, on which occasion he made the acquaintance of 
Leopold II of Belgium anil was entertained at the 
palace by the king. Me has recently made for the 
government of the British colony of the Bahamas an 
exhaustive hydrographic, geological, and tidal survey 
of the harbor of Nassau, traced and mapped its cur- 
rents, made numerous borings to ascertain the amount 
of -ilt or -and overlying its coral rock bottom, deter- 
mined the source of this -ilt, devised means for the 
prevention of further silting, and made plans for the 
permanent improvement of the harbor, being quartered 
while engaged in this work on one of the ships of the 
I'.ritish Navy. 

A late writer says; "It is given to few to excel like 
Mr. Bowers in so many different ways. It has been 
his joy to do things and to do them well. To this end 
he has labored unceasingly all his life. I lis ambition 
greatly to benefit his country and the world has been 
gratified, yet he shows no inclination to rest on laurels 
alread) won. Me works from twelve to sixteen, some- 
times twenty, hours per day, and even then shows little 
sign of fatigue. Thoroughness in what he under- 
takes is a dominant characteristic, lie gets at the 
bottom of things. This i- why suction dredger- built 
from hi- designs -how-, as they do, from ten to fifty, 
simetimes sixty per cent, greater efficiency than those 
built from the designs of those who. seeking to evade 
his patent- or improve on hi- plans, resort to devices 
long since invented and discarded by him." 

Another writer says of him : "It seems strange that 
a man who has done so much, who has battled so long 

and so hard, who has triumphed over difficulties from 

which most men would have shrunk appalled, sin ml. 1 
slum no trace of hardness in his style. It goes to 
prove that gentleness, tact, and kindness are not in- 
compatible with the stern, unyielding strength of 

lie is descended on both sides from revolutionary 
stock. Mr. George Bowers, his first ancestor of that 
name in America, came in 1(137 to Scituate. Mass., 
from Kent County, in the south of England, where 
Bowers Hall, Bowers Meadows, and the post town, 
Bowers-Gifford, still perpetuate the name. The names 
of ( ieorge Ilowers and his descendants are of frequent 
occurrence in the colonial records of New England 
and other States. Every generation from George 
down has furnished men of wealth and worth, edu- 
cators, authors, doctors, clergymen, legislators, mer- 
chants, importers, millmen, mayors, railroad commis- 
sioners, military and naval officers, engineers, or 
lawyers, and some generations all of these at once. 
Five of his descendants loaned money for the prosecu- 
tion of the Revolutionary War. < )n the maternal side 
Mr. I lowers is descended through the Earls of Errol 
and Kinnoul from the Hay family that for a thousand 
years has figured in the history of Scotland, England, 

and Ireland, and of which there are many dis- 
tinguished ami titled branches. 

lie has a quiet, dignified, somewhat reserved, but 
with kindred spirits, magnetic personality. His man- 
ner, though genial, is commanding, and his conversa- 
tion interesting, often witty, and at times terse and 
incisive, lie possesses indomitable courage, energy 
and persistency. Mis vigorous health, quick, elastic 
step, erect figure, prompt business methods and tire- 
less activity are indicative of a man in the prime of 
life and warrant the assumption that the score of his 
achievements is far from completion. 

He is a modest, unassuming, broad-minded, many- 
sided man, who has always the courage of his con- 
victions. His mechanical inventions have given him 
international fame, and his reputation as a hard fighter 
for his rights is equally well known. His mechanisms 
and dredging systems are employed in great private 
and public works extending over two hemispheres. 
He has builded a monument to himself more lasting 
than brass and will pass into the history of science and 
invention as a public benefactor. He is a genius who 
has won his title on the fiercest fields, against the most 
resourceful competitors, in the brightest era in the 
annals of the world. 

The Bowers Dredge and Bowers System of Dredging. Transporting and Filling 

NE of the recognized financial mag- 
nates of the United States, Mr. 
i 'laus Spreckels is singularly a man 
who lias made his wealth by adding 
to the world's resources. No man 
is more thoroughly identified with 
the commercial, industrial, financial, 
shipping and literary growth of San Francisco than 
is Mr. Spreckels. More than this, his interests have 

mercantile, marine and other interests were dormant. 
Today these islands have contributed t" the world 
liu nc 1 reds of millions of dollars' worth of C( uninercial 
sugar. Vs rapidly ;i- his wealth has accumulated from 
tli"su industries which have developed the country. 
Mr. Spreckels has reinvested his wealth in California 
and in enterprises that have built up ( California, 1 te 
practically built the "Valley Road" — San Joaquin 
\ alley Railroad - and through it San Francisco, after 

Mr. Claus Spreckels 

extended far beyond the borders of California and 
his constructive work as well as his example have 
done more to develop civilization in the Hawaiian 
Islands than that of any ■■titer man. Indeed, it is due 
to Mr. Spreckels particularly that the Hawaiian 
Islands were added to the territory of the United 
States. When he foresaw their vast future and their 
possibilities as a sugar-producing country the islands 
were in a languishing condition. Sugar plantations, 

.1 long and tierce struggle, secured railway competi- 
tion io the Atlantic. The value of this service can 
hardly be overestimated. Not only did the new line 
■ ■pen up some of the most fertile territory in the 
world but it created a vast market for San Francisco 
wares. By the development of the beet sugar in- 
dustry in California. Mr. Spreckels has benefited 
thousands of farmers, land owners, merchants and 

The Claus Spreckels Building, sometimes called 
the "Call Building," is at once the must notable and 
beautiful structure of the far West and of the Pa- 
cific Slope. In a way it typifies the work of Mr. 
Spreckels in his leadership in industrial achieve- 
ments, for on the completion of this exquisite struc- 
ture there began in San Francisco an era of modern 
office buildings. The manner in which the Spreckels 
Building withstood the ravages of April iS. 1906, 

fortune in New York and other Eastern centers and 
lived far from the land that had treated them kindly. 
The evidences of Mr. Spreckels' wealth are visible 
everywhere, lie promoted the practical application 
of electricity for street cars and lighting; he brought 
cheap gas to the people of San Francisco; he pre- 
sented the city with the magnificent music stand 
in Golden (late Park, and throughout the business 
and residential districts he has not only beautified 

George William Kelham 
Of Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects for the New Palace Hotel 

is a commentary upon the thoroughness with which the city but has given employment t" thousands of 
Mr. Spreckels has both actuall) ami metaphorically artisans. 

laid his foundations. Although there are being 
erected larger buildings in San Francisco there can 
lie none that will lie more exquisite in architectural 
conception or more enabled to last through all viscis 

Perhaps never before lias the fact been emphasized 

that the San Irancisro business men of this genera 
tion differ in a marked degree from au\ of the 

earlier monej kings of the Pacific ( oast who 
amassed their wealth here but then invested theii 

The career of Claus Spreckels. in a way, may be 
compared to thai of James J. Hill. Mr. Spreckels 

is a builder ami creator, as il were, who, with a 
constructive mind, seizes upon opportunities and 
converts them into facts. In X'ew York lie is ranked 

among the ablest and mosl C0I1 ervattve financiers 

m the countrj ; Ins vast fortune ami extensive mi' 1 
esis associate him financially with .•111 greatest 

O be editor and proprietor of a great 
metropolitan daily and to simul- 
taneously assume the direction of 
a number of extremely large business 
affairs is a role that calls for energ) , 
activity, and executive ability to a 
rather unusual degree. Mr. M. II. 
de Young is probably best known as the editor and 
proprietor of the San Francisco "Chronicle," a 
journal which perhaps more than any other ( ali 
fornia newspaper has for years been the most help- 

people, from whom the people in California in no 
wa} s differ. 

Apart from the "Chronicle" Mr. de Young's ac- 
tivities extend to a wide field, lie is esteemed one 
of the wisest and yet most progressive business men 
on the Pacific Coast. His great fortune is heavily 
invested in constructive enterprises in San Fran- 
cisco. The huge "Chronicle" buildings, one of which 
is among the earliest of the great sky-scrapers to be 
occupied since the tire, and man} other pieces of 
improved real estate testify to his faith in the future. 

Mr. M. H. de Young 

ful influence in promoting the industrial and com- 
mercial welfare of the city and State, and which 
at the same time has taken the most decisive stand 
against all influences that would be of harm to 
San Francisco and to the country at large. It is 
a sign of Mr. de Young's temperament that the 
"Chronicle" is in no sense a capitalistic paper — 
using that word in the meaning of predati iry capi- 
tal — nor on the other hand is it rabid or demagogic, 
but it expresses in a peculiarly forceful way the 
healthv views of the mass of the great American 

Mr. de Young is the father of a charming family. 
He has traveled widely and is devoted to the arts, 
especially music. He has donated many valuable 
works of art to the city: notable among these is the 
Museum in Golden Gate Park, which is the best 
of its kind in the West. 

Mr. de Young is essentially a man of action, and 
in times of necessity he will take off his coat and 
go to work with the citizens on any good work that 
stands tor the best interests of the city, thereby lend- 
ing a notable example. 

EW names are more prominently identi- 
fied with the growth and development 
of California than that of the Sharon 
family. The part that this wealthy 
family has played in the building np 
of the State is a part of the history of 
the Pacific Coast. Air. I*" red Sharon, 
son of Senator William Sharon, the famous California 
pioneer, is one of the type of men who have helped 

With Senator Newlands, his brother-in-law, and other 
members of the family. Mr. Sharon is the owner of 
the great Palace 1 lotel, which will be rebuilt on a 
finer and handsomer scale than ever before. In the 
early days of the Palace Hotel it was said to be the 
finest hospice in all the world. The Palace Hotel 
Company has now leased the Fairmont Hotel for a 
period of ten years, but will also proceed as rapidly 
as possible with the construction of the new Palace. 

Mr. Fred Sharon 

to bring San Francisco to the forefront. Possessed 
of an enormous personal fortune Mr. Sharon is 
actively identified with a vast number of useful enter 
prises. I lis interests in mining are ver\ heavy indeed, 
and, in fact, it is to the mining industry thai the first 
rise of the Sharon family was due, and since that time 
the enormous wealth accruing to the famil) from the 
golden store of California's and Nevada's mines has 

been steadily increased, owing to judicious invest- 
ments on the part of the family. 

Socially and financially Mr. Sharon is connected 

with some of the most prominent men ol the West. 

Mr. Sharon is a man of wide literarj tastes and is 
exceedingly well informed on public events and in cur- 
rent literature. Although not as well known, per- 
haps, as many men of less wealth, this is largely due 
to tlu> fact that Mr. Sharon is not in am wa\ OStenta 
tious but withal he is a mosl democratic man. In a 
quiet wa\ lie ,^i\cs mail) thousands of dollars to 
worth) and charitable enterprises each yeai 

The Sharon famil) arc connected with royalty, Mi 
Sharon's sister being the beautiful and celebrated 

social queen, the Countess Festetics, who, as Flora 
Sharon, was one of the belles of San Francisco 

AMI-S 1). PHELAN is essentially a 
good citizen. In him the trails of 
civic and public service are pecu- 
liarly developed insomuch that al- 
though Mr. Phelan lias but once 
held public office, during which 
peril pel he was Mayor of San Fran- 
cisco, he has always been a public man in the very 
liesi sense of that word. 'This trail of citizenship is 
probably more generally known and recognized by 

Francisco by investing must heavily in the present 
constructive development of the city. He has, it 
may be observed, an immense private fortune that 
is yearly assuming vaster proportions, ami which 
has increased not through speculative undertak- 
ings but rather through the growing wealth of the 
ei immunity in which he has so much confidence. 
The vast holdings and important properties and 
city blocks which Mr. Phelan owned in San Fran- 
cisco prior to the tire will be completely recon- 

Mr. James D. Phelan 

the public mind than any other characteristic of Mr. 
Phelan. His brilliant and incisive intellect, his 
great wealth, and the regard by which his abilities 
are held by financiers, by the people of San Fran- 
cisco and the entire East, have merely contributed 
to emphasize his public spirit which would have 
marked him as a good and useful man in am com- 
munity and under any conditions had he even been 
born a poor instead of a wealth}- man. Mr. Phelan 
is one of the good men who have inspired the con- 
fidence of the business community in the new San 

structed, while his extensive properties in San Jose 
and other cities will also be improved. 

In a full measure Mr. Phelan is arbiter clegantiariitm. 
a judge, as the Romans said, of the exquisite things 
of life. He has traveled much in foreign countries 
and has presented the city with many rare bits of 
art as well as presented to it statues and some 
figures typifying California's thrilling history. Two 
libraries in San Francisco hold their being to Mr. 
Phelan, and many churches, schools, etc.. have been 
endowed by him. 

( > man in California has more applied 
himself to the creation of new forms 
of industrial wealth which have 
proved of decided benefit to the 
public and at the same time have 
not entered into competition with 
existing enterprises but have rather 
given rise to immeasurable new opportunities than 
Mr. Tohn Martin of San Francisco. Mr. Martin is 

servative financier. His reputation as a consolidator 
of capital and as a man who brings capital and 
opportunity together may be said to be interna- 

Having developed such a vast amount of power 
Mr. Martin has entered the electric railway field 
and with brilliant results. In Northern California 
his projects are placing a network of electric rail- 
ways; these are the most powerful industrial and 

Mr. John Martin 

tin- organizer and vice-presidenl of the California commercial factors that have ever entered into the 

( ras and Electric ( lorpi iration, a vast and powerful development oi the Sacramento \ alley. Mr, Martin 

institution which has developed many thousands of is president of the California Midland Railway 

horse-power from the mountain streams of tali- Company and the Nevada County Traction Railway, 

for in a, and has set the wheels of activity running in having projected and built both those roads, lie is 

everv important city in the northern portion of the the founder and president of the great woolen mills 

State. 'To a marked degree Mr. Martin possesses in Marysville, California, and of various industries 

the faculty of consolidating capital ami projecting in Santa Rosa, and has planned, organized and put 

it into large industrial enterprises with such surreys in execution man) local enterprises, besides being 

that his associates recognize in him a man not only heavily interested in business and other corpora 

of great executive ability, hut a safe, sane and COn- lions. 

r is a commentary upon the wealth 
and productiveness of San Fran- 
cisco and California that many of 
the leading financiers of the me- 
tropolis arc men who have taken 

part in the organization of indus- 
trial enterprises whose growth and 
development have been a part of the growth and 
development of San Francisco. Frederick Till- 

The success which has come to every enterprise with 
which he is actively connected ami in whose man- 
agement he, ''i course, lends his initiative, well illus- 
trates the fact that a forceful and executive mind 
will do will in whatever it undertakes regardless "i 

the channels it d ill* iw S. 

Mr. Tillman i- another of that type cif men de- 
scribed in these articles who is more than willing to 
take off his coal and work for the public good in fair 

man, Jr.. president of the great and worthy German 
Savings Association of San Francisco, is distinctly 

a young man of this character. Mr. Tillman is a 
native son and by his faith in the city of his birth 
and his public-spiritedness he has become a man of 
great private interests: and one who at the same 
time holds a notable place in the regard of the in- 
dustrial and financial community of the city. Mr. 
Tillman is president of the Tillman & Bendel Mer- 
cantile Company, which is the largest grocer) con- 
cern on the Pacific Coast, and is a director of many 
other important industrial and financial enterprises. 

Mr. Frederick Tillman, Jr. 

r in time of crisis, lie has donated to many 


private and charitable enterprises and ranks high 
among those business men who have made San 
Francisco the most remarkable and wonderful city 
in the world, a community, by the way, which will, 
despite.' the many calamities that have overtaken it. 
still increase in importance until it shall vie with 
any of the capitals of the earth. 

Personally Mr. Tillman is very popular and ap- 
proachable. 11 is character is one that lends itself 
to the ideal- of younger men — the sterling type of 
public-spirited business man. 

man whose services to the public 
arc simply immeasurable for the 
reason that he stands for an ideal 
in public service. Mr. Spreckels, 
who is a young man — considerably 
under forty — is chiefly known in 
the public mind as furnishing the fund for the in- 
vestigation of municipal affairs in San Francisco. 
Perhaps no more useful public work could have 
been instituted, nor one which assuredly will lie 
of greater ultimate financial benefit to San Fran- 
cisco than the probing and eradication of the 
irregularities in the city administration, a condition 

desires to render good public service without office. 
Although never having held a political position, 
nor never having sought one, he has yet achieved 
a public service of a wider importance and one 
which would probably transcend any duties be 
might have performed had he been an elected execu- 
tive, for the reason that his motives are entirely dis- 
interested, and .Mr, Spreckels in contributing this 
large amount to make possible an investigation into 
the corruptions of intrenched wealth has enabled 
the city to strike itself from shackles that could 
not have been broken except by the hiring of an 
enormous amount of detective talent and a great 
office force which would encourage the generous 


Francis J. Heney Rudolph Spreckels 

with which people throughout the world have be- 
come familial'. Personally, and by reason oi bis 
achievements, Mr. Rudolph Spreckels would make 
a striking figure as the hero ,,f one of \.nthonj 
Mope's romances, [or no more charming, vigorous, 
sensible, personality ma} be conceived. Bui such 

a parallel would do Mr. Spreckels grave injustice, 
for while he has a chivalrous spirit of romanticism, 
in that he believes in the innate probity and desire 
of the American people to ci induct their affairs Willi 
honor and integrity, and to rise to high levels, yet, 
he is in every sense a conservative business man, 
and the wild escapades of one of Mithonv Hope's 

soldiers of fortune- would not appeal to In- practical 
yet philanthropic nature. 

Mr. Spreckels is uniquely a public man who 

legal talent that has gratuitouslj volunteered itself. 

Mr. Spreckels is widely interested in California 

investments. \ hobby of his is the- breeding oi 

line horses, and he has contributed in .1 notable de 

gree to the improvement of California strains ami 
to making our racing stock vie with those- of Kentucky. 
He is also largely interested in banking, is a I. 
stockholder in one of the great banks, and as a con- 
servative financier bears a high reputation on the 
1 'ai ific 1 1 >asl 

Mrs. Spreckels, the wife of Rudolph Spreckels, 
was formed) Miss Jolliffe, and 1- very gcneralbj 

said to Ik- the most beautiful woman in California. 
'she is mih- ol several sisters all of whom are- famed 
for their beauty and intelligence Mr. ami Mrs 

Spreckels have .1 beautiful home on Pacific Vvenue. 

hi-- naturally 
sumption of 

X the upbuilding of Pacific Coast ago disclosed the well-known business ability ami 

commercial and marine interests the financial acumen that have distinguished the family 

name of Mr. William Gerstle will name. 

always play an important part. A Personally Mr. Gerstle is as modest and un- 

member of a very wealthy family assuming as he is enterprising and public-spirited 

and with high social and financial in his business undertakings. His reputation 

affiliations. Mr. Gerstle has added t'i among financiers is deservedly high. 

fortunate situation in life by the as- Mr. Gerstle is a gentleman of large private for- 

an extremely active part in the up- tune and i- a member of several leading clubs of 

Mr. Wm. Gerstle 

building of the Pacific (."oast metropolis. Mr. 
Gerstle's investments in San Francisco realty are 
very large, ami he is a director in several real 
estate investment corporations and in commercial 
companies of wide activity. Mr. Gerstle is promi- 
nently connected with the great Alaska Commercial 

Always the men of the Gerstle family have taken 
a prominent part in the successful management and 
inauguration of large commercial ventures. Mr. 
( ier^tle. although comparatively a young man. long 

the city. In public affairs he is a typical San Fran- 
ciscan; he represents the best type of the men of 
San Francisco, to whom no sacrifice is too great in 
order that they may see their chosen city rank high 
financially, commercially, and ethically among the 
cities of the world. Mr. Gerstle has lent to his 
work the prestige of great wealth and long- 
established financial connections, and an honorable 
family name which is permanently identified with 
the progress of San Francisco. 

Mr. E. J. De Sabla, Jr. 

Californians Fond of Trav- 

NE of the greatest resources of Cali- 
fornia is the latent power of her 
mountain streams. The fact that 
many of our streams possess large 
ami steady volume ami great fall 
was known for generations, Inn the 
exceptional opportunities were al- 
lowed to pas-, almost unnoticed until a few years 
ago enterprising capitalists with a faith in the City 
of San Francisco, ami a desire to utilize the unde- 
veloped power for the benefit of the city, took ad- 
vantage of them. Today there are developed in 
California 140,000 horse-power from the fall of Sierra 
streams. The power of these streams is used to 
run street cars, illuminate cities, furnish power for 
farmers for irrigation, and it is dispensed to that 
vast variety of enterprises which make use of elec- 
trical current for light and illumination. 

Among the men who stand foremost in tin- de- 
velopment of power enterprises is Mr. Eugene J. 
de Sabla, Jr. Mr. de Sabla, foreseeing the growing 
importance of San Francisco as an industrial ami 
commercial center, organized the Bay Counties 
Power Company, a corporation which has become 
a most unusual and powerful instrument in the in- 
dustrial life of the metropolis. Mr. de Sabla has 
been instrumental through his corporations in bring- 
ing the long-distance transmission of electricity in 
California to a higher degree of utility than any- 
where else in the world. As president of the Bay 
Counties Power Company he has performed a tre- 
mendous service to those associated with him and 
to the public at large. The manufacturing industrial 
and transportation interests of San Francisco ami 
Northern California have grown so rapidly, ami so 
many new fields for the utilization of power have 
appeared that the scope of the Bay Counties Power 
Company became vastly enlarged. Therefore, with 
his associates Mr. de Sabla took part in the forma- 
tion of the California Gas and Electric Corporation, 
a company that lias created new industries and de- 
veloped existing ones, thereby stimulating all com- 
mercial activities in this section, and that has im- 
measurably opened up many hitherto unsuspected 
opportunities in the northern part of the Stale. The 
corporation now supplies power to do/ens of cities 

and has made possible a degree of transportation and 
development that otherwise would have been impos 
sible. Besides the electric enterprise, however. Mr, 
de Sabla is interested in many other corporations 
and ranks as one of the wealthiest capitalists resid 
ing in San Francisco, lie is identified with several 
commercial and financial institutions, owns an ele 
gant pin ale mansion in San Francisco and is a 
generous patron of worthy enterprises. 

Hamburg-American Line 

EALIZING that Californians are un- 
usually fond of traveling and that 
San Francisco is one of the most im- 
portant tourist centers of America, 
the Hamburg-American Line has re- 
cently established a branch office in 
this city at <jo8 Market Street, under 
the management of Mr. H. F. Dorgeloh, who has been 
connected with the company's offices in Xew York 
and abroad ami is, therefore, thoroughly acquainted 
with their manifold interests. Very few people 
here realize the scope of this wonderful concern — 
the largest steamship company in the world. Its 
350 vessels, with a total tonnage of 900,000 tons, sail 
to almost every port of the globe, and regular 
services are maintained on fifty-eight different 
n >utes. 

San Franciscans feel at home on their palatial 
liners "Amerika," "Deutschland," "Kaiserin Au- 
gusta Victoria," etc.. as these steamers offer every 
possible luxury obtainable on a trans-Atlantic 
leviathan. The Hamburg-American Line is ever 
alert to improve travel conditions, and all modern 
innovations, such as the famous Ritz-Carlton res- 
taurants a la carte, passenger elevators, grill-rooms, 
gymnasiums, florist-shops, electric-light baths. 

children's playrooms, etc.. are introduced by the 

company on these vessels. 

Ihe Hamburg-American Fine does not only cater 

to their patrons for the trans \ilanlic voyage, but. 
to facilitate their travel abroad, has established 

throughout Europe a perfectly organized chain of 

tourist bureaux, which is placed at the disposal of 

American travelers. 

Hitherto a "Trip to Europe" was looked upon as 
a mammoth study, but the tourist office supplies a 
long-fell want, ami the fact thai tickets for the 
Atlantic voyage, as well as the original railroad 
tickets through England, Germany, Switzerland, 

France, hah. eti . can now he secured "at home." 
will no doubt induce many of our readers 1,, start 
on that long planned pleasure trip without dclav 

California Poppies 

-V*V, ■ K i 


San Francisco before the Fire, showing Harbor and the Golden Gate 



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